Modals of Deduction/speculation
Students will be able to use the rules of modals of deduction in the simple past and present tense form with the help of the text which includes several sentences about the forms. Students will be able to correctly produce their own sentences by using the modals of deduction.
To analyze the usages of modals of deduction in the simple present and past tense form by examining the samples in the presentation.
Students will be able to produce their own sentences with modals of deduction in the simple present and past tense forms by discussing the photos in the presentation. Students will be able to express the usages of modals of deduction in the simple present and past tense forms in speaking activities by working in pairs/whole class (depending on how many students we have). Students will be able to formulate the modals of deduction in the simple present and past tense forms by making use of the adjectives in the writing exercises.
Procedure (31-48 minutes)
Warm-Up (Listening) Students will be able to guess the context by examining the pictures. Students will be able to use the new words they learned in the previous lesson . The teacher presents some pictures which are related to the detective Sherlock Holmes, students are invited to discuss who he is and what detectives do. Teacher will introduce the modal deduction topic.
The students will have a short presentation/question and answer speaking activity with pictures using present tense modal deduction. must be - Very sure - 99% can't be - Very sure - We think it's impossible - 99% may / might / could be - We think it's possible - 50%
Teacher will show the first slide with the color-coded explanation of past tense modals. Two example photo's will be displayed and students will be given the question and answer for these slides. Making deductions about the PAST: 'How do you think the burglar got in?' 'He must have climbed through the window.' To make guesses about the past; = Modal verb + have + past participle "• He must have climbed through the window. = Very sure - we think it's possible - 99% • He couldn’t have come through the door. = Very sure - we think it's impossible - 99% • He may / might / could have escaped through the window. = We think it's possible - 50%" Students must be asked if they have any questions about these rules. Students do not need to write these down yet. The rules will be included on the next 20 slides.
Ask students "How many past deductions can you make about these photos?" Show the students the photo's and have each student try to produce the three possible answers. • Must have - Very sure - we think it's possible 99% • Couldn't have - Very sure - we think it's impossible - 99% • may / might / could have - We think it's possible - 50% After the students brainstorm the possible answers, the teacher will give them the answers: "He must have robbed a bank He couldn't have Taken much money The police might have Seen him" Students will practice with 40 different pictures/scenarios for each slide. Each student will have a change to discuss with other students what the possible answers could be and confirm their preditions.
Give students "modals of past probability" worksheet. Have them look at the new chart. Students must rewrite sentences using past modal form. They can use the table to help. "Example: It is almost certain that he left before breakfast. He must have left before breakfast." Go over answers choosing random students and confirming feedback. Answer any questions if students have any.