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Modals of deduction
Intermediete level


In this lesson students are going to learn modals of deduction (e.g. must, can't, might, may, could) through PPP. The lesson starts with some pictures which they are going to guess where they were taken. Next, they will listen to a listening to pick up the countries' name. Then, The modals are going to be elicited by pictures. finally they will have controlled practice and semi-controlled practice that they use modals in speaking.


Abc pictures
Abc pictures

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of modals of deduction in the context of travel

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide specific information listening practice using a text about name of countries such as Argentina, vietmam in the context of travel


pre- listening (3-5 minutes) • preperation for listening by some photos

I am going to ask them where the photos were taken to elicit the name of the countries and why they think so. There would be no agreement or disagreement but in order to expose them to the grammar I am going to use the modals like may, might and could.

while listening (5-8 minutes) • Theyare going to be exposed to some of the words and modals through listening

First they listen to pick up the names of the countries that these photos were taken. If their answers were correct I am going to put them on the board then they listen again to check their answers and also put them in the right order .in this stage they can take some notes to in order to explain why their answers are correct. Then, I will hand them the answer key.

Post listening (8-10 minutes) • Working on some words that are related to the context of listening

First they are going to match these words with the pictures. If they had any problem I am going to make some further clarifications, either by picture or by drawing on the board. After that they will be provide with an answer key. Then, they will have a freer practice in which they are going to give one example for each word from their own country.

introduction (5-7 minutes) • Students are going to be presented with grammar

I am going to show them some pictures that are follwed by some questions. First they are going to answer the questions and match them to the grammatical sentences on the boared based on the level of certainty that they have.

Controlled task (10-13 minutes) • They are goin to work out the grammar

they will be given a hand out to fill. They can use modals of deduction to fill in the blank to be sure that they dont have any problem with modals.Then, they have two other controlled exercises in which they should do matchining and rewriting the sentences and after that they will check them in pairs. when they finished they will be provided with answer key.

Controlled Practice (5-8 minutes) • To use deduction in their speaking

They will be given a han out in which there is a table of information about cities. They must use these information and put the cities name in the table. they must use modals of deduction in agroup of three or four to show their agreement or disagreement to each other. Then I am going to give them the answer key

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