Michael Galant Michael Galant

TP3 - Galant
Elementary level


In this language-focused lesson with a PPP format, students learn and practice the use of frequency adverbs. The context for the lesson is a questionnaire to determine whether one is an "early bird" or a "night owl." After setting this context through the stages of a receptive skills lesson, students are presented with the TL, followed by controlled, semi-controlled, practice, and finally a freer, productive exercise. Reading and speaking skills are practiced throughout.


Main Aims

  • To provide introduction to, or clarification of, the meaning, form, and pronunciation of frequency adverbs.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide reading practice in the context of a questionnaire on whether or not one is a morning person.
  • To provide speaking practice related to the questionnaire and in the use of frequency adverbs.


Lead-in (1-2 minutes) • To provide a short lead-in to set the context for the reading (which will itself be the context for the language analysis).

T asks Ss about their mornings, if they were tired, if they need tea or coffee, etc. T asks Ss if they are a "morning person."

Pre-Teaching Vocabulary (2-3 minutes) • To pre-teach the meaning of the important vocabulary from the text.

T refers to pictures on WB, elicits meaning of "Morning Bird" and "Night Owl." T briefly drills students on pronunciation. T asks Ss "Is this a noun or an adjective?". CCQ: "When does a morning bird like to wake up?" (Early)

Pre-Task (1-2 minutes) • To engage the students in their reading by providing them with a task to be completed during the reading of the text.

T asks Ss to raise their hands if they think they are a morning bird. T writes down number on WB. T asks Ss to raise their hands if they think they are a night owl. Writes down number on WB.

Building the Context/Reading (4-6 minutes) • To develop students' reading skills while building the context for the language analysis.

T chests HO, instructing Ss to keep it folded, read and complete questionnaire, using gestures to emphasize that they have about 3 minutes. ICQ: "Are we going to unfold it and do the next part?" (No). Ss complete questionnaire while T monitors and prepares example for next stage on WB.

Building the Context 2 (4-7 minutes) • To continue building the context (and providing reading and speaking practice) by having students check questionnaire results.

T has written example of questionnaire results (from p158) on WB. T chests p158 HO, and uses WB example to explain how to find questionnaire results. T instructs Ss to check their results. T distributes p158 HO. T monitors while Ss find results. T prepares cline on WB for next stage. When enough students are finished, T instructs them to discuss their answers in pairs. FB: Students discuss their results in pairs. Then T asks WC to raise hands if they are a morning bird and writes it down next to predicted number. T does same with night owl. T asks if anyone was in the middle.

Language Analysis - Meaning (5-7 minutes) • To introduce the TL and clarify its meaning.

T has drawn cline and list of frequency adverbs on board. T puts "hardly ever" on cline as example. Then points to other adverbs and gestures to match them to the cline. T chests HO, gestures to match words to cline. T distributes HO, monitors while Ss complete. FB: T instructs those who have finished to discuss in pairs. T then gives early finishers adverbs and asks them to complete the cline on the WB. T quickly goes over cline as WC, focuses on problem areas. CCQ's as needed.

Language Analysis - Pronunciation (2-3 minutes) • To practice pronunciation of TL.

T uses gestures toward cline to drill class (chorally) on pronunciation of TL. T focuses on problem areas, anticipated to be more natural ways of saying "usually" and "often."

Reading for Specific Information (4-6 minutes) • To develop reading for specific information skills with a focus on TL.

T chests text HO, and, gesturing to adverbs on board, instructs students to circle the frequency adverbs (individually). Ss complete exercise while T monitors. T prepares model form sentences on WB. FB: T instructs students to check answers in pairs, then provides answer key.

Language Analysis - Form (6-8 minutes) • To clarify the form of the TL by using TL in context text.

T has already written examples for form on WB, both correct and incorrect (see language analysis). T goes through each and asks Ss which examples are correct. T focuses on problem areas. T uses CCQ's to check understanding (see language analysis).

Practice (5-7 minutes) • For students, after reviewing/learning the meaning of the TL, to practice the TL.

T chests ex4 HO. T instructs students to put a frequency adverb into each sentence to make it true. ICQ: "Do we put the same word in each sentence?" (No, we make it true for us). T distributes HO, monitors Ss and prepares next stage while they work. FB: First in pairs, then asks class for examples in WC.

Semi-Controlled Practice/Speaking Practice (7-9 minutes) • To provide an semi-controlled practice where students can practice their speaking skills.

T chests exercise HO. T has drawn example of HO on board. T instructs Ss that they will each get a different action, and a chart that includes the frequency adverbs. Ss are to get up, in a whole class mingle, and ask the other Ss how often they do the action on the top of their paper. When the other student responds, using a frequency adverb, they tally who said what. ICQ: "Do we write names?" (No, just the number who answer). Ss complete exercise while T monitors. FB: If-time, Ss discuss results in pairs. T then asks questions in WC FB. T can write and correct errors in WB if time.

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