Marwan Marwan

Intermediate level


In this lesson, ss will learn how to use past modals in the contexts of degrees of certainty. They will have the chance to practise as much as possible by the end of the lesson.


No materials added to this plan yet.

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of past modals in the context of degrees of certainty

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a conversation in the context of degrees of certainty


Warmer/Lead-in (3-4 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

I will present the following questions: 1. Do you like going to parties and planned events? 2. Do you like to throw parties? 3. Do you have a friend who never comes on time?

Exposure (3-4 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Idea 1 (6-7 min) Here I will ask a student to assist me in acting a funny play as a situation. The play is going to be as follows: I act sad and in need of help for holding a party somewhere at a restaurant the other day. The student acts as a friend of mine who is very obliging and always helps everyone, and he promises to lend me a hand. The other day comes, but he never shows up. I act sadder and more disappointed. Then I ask the ss the following: 1. Why does my friend never show up? 2. He's definitely a bad person, or is there an explanation? The moment they mention anything of the target language, I will go to the next stage, so I elicit what is needed and highlight the target language. OR: idea 2 (3-4 min) I present two written short situations and tell them that all the people in the stories are very good people and always do what they have to do; 1. We had a party last week. Everyone brought something. Aboody had to bring juice, but he never showed up. so, we ate everything but had no drinks at all. 2. I went to the hospital because I was sick. I didn't have enough money, so I called Zezo and asked him to give me a lift back home. He said surely yes but never showed up. so, I went back home walking and got even worse. (They read for 1 min) Then ask the following questions: 1. Why didn't they, Aboody and Zezo, show up? 2. They're definitely bad people, or is there an explanation? (They discuss for 1 min)

Highlighting (2-3 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

I will elicit the following: He must\may\might\could have had an emergency. I will try to get the name of the lesson "Past modals for degrees of certainty".

Clarification (10-12 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

I will use the sentence I elicited in the previous stage in this part of the lesson as my marker sentence. I will elicit meaning, form and pronunciation as much as possible. 1. Starting with the meaning, which's already clear, I will try to elicit the three degrees of certainty: It's almost certain, it's possible, and it is not possible. And, I will elicit the modal verbs categorised as supposed to be. I will ask CCQs for sure. 2. The form will be elicited using the marker sentence. must may Subject + might + have + past participle + the rest of the sentence. could The negative form will quickly be elicited. 3. The pronunciation will be clarified and drilled. I will point out to the reduction of 'have'. Also, I will tell them that 'not' is not reduced, and it is linked to have except for could/couldn't. Afirmative: He must have had an emergency. /hi məst həv həd ən ɪˈmɜːʤənsi/. Negative: He must not have remembered the party. /hi məst nɒt həv rɪˈmɛmbəd ðə ˈpɑːti/. Now I make sure we drill some of them.

Controlled Practice (4-5 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

I will tell them to do exercise 'A' on page 87 in the book individually in 2 min. Then they compare in pairs with a justification for each of their answers for 1 min.

Semi-Controlled Practice (2-3 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

Ss do part B of the exercise. They work in pairs to suggest different explanations for 3 situations just for max 1.30 min.

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

I will put the ss in 4 groups and ask them to come up with situations, one for each, and write them on cards in 1.30 min. I will give them an example of a situation before they start. I will let them put the cards on the walls of the classroom. Then I will get them to read other groups' situations and come up with explanations and make sure they just speak and never write 1 min max for each situation. They will keep rotating till they finish all the situations if possible. I have my notepad in my hand so that I get to write what is needed for the feedback.

Feedback and Error Correction (3-4 minutes) • To provide feedback on students' production and use of language

The notes taken by me from the freer practice will be used here to correct the mistakes if any and to provide a positive feedback of their use of the target language.

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