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TP8 Grammar -- Past modals


In this class, students will learn how and when to use past modals to express deductions and suspicions


Abc Navigate B2 Coursebook, Audio 7-2
Abc Navigate B2 Coursebook, Oxford, 2016
Abc New Cutting Edge Upper-intermediate Student's Book, p.101
Abc Four Corners 4 Student's Book,

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of past modals in the context of deductions about past events

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a conversation in the context of deductions about past events


Warmer/Lead-in (4-6 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T welcomes Ss T shows first slide of the PPT and asks Ss to what is happening in the picture. T shows the next slide with four sentences from the Navigate textbook. T asks SS what might have happened to make these rules necessary. Ss are given 2 mins to think then share their ideas.

Exposure (6-8 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

T tells Ss they will listen to two people speculating about why the rules were necessary. Ss are asked to check if the two people said any of the same ideas as them. Ss report back if any of their ideas were the same. T shows the key sentences on Slide 4

Highlighting (1-2 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

T shows example sentences on slide 4 and asks Ss what they all have in common. T highlights the target language and explains these are "past modals"

Clarification (10-12 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

T shares the guided discovery sheet with Ss. Ss have 4 mins to work in pairs in breakout rooms to fill in the GD sheet. T monitors breakout rooms Ss return to the main room and T shares the answer sheet. T makes sure that the Ss fully understand the cline. Ss ask any questions. T shows Ss slide 6 and asks them which words are stressed and unstressed in the TL. T models and drills Ss on correct word stress

Controlled Practice (6-8 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

T shares Practice 1 Google form with Ss For 4 mins Ss work in pairs in breakout rooms to fill in the gaps with the TL. T monitors In the main room, T gives and answers any questions about surety.

Free Practice (10-12 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

T shares Practice 2 Google form. Ss are given 5 mins to discuss with their partner what they think happened to create the scene in the picture. T monitors Ss and encourages them to use past modal sentences to deduce what happened. After 5 mins the Ss return to the main room and share their ideas about the two pictures. T shows Ss the before pictures to see if Ss ideas were accurate. T shares any feedback/errors in TL use and Ss work to correct the errors T thanks Ss and ends class

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