Muhammad Jamil Muhammad Jamil

Teaching Practice 6
Upper Intermediate B2 Learners level


In this lesson students will learn about the modal verbs of speculation (present and past) through a guided discovery based on power point slides, sentences and practice. The rules of the grammar will be extracted by the students themselves. After the presentation, the meaning, form,and pronunciation will be explained by using sentences. At the next stage, students will have controlled and semi-controlled practice. At the last stage, students will have freer productive exercises to master the the new grammar item.


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Main Aims

  • to teach modal verbs of speaculation with specific focus on their present and past usage.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To focus on vocabulary, pronunciation and speaking.


Lead-in / Introduction (6 minutes) • To provide a guided lead-in to the main topic, modal verb of speculation or ability.

A paragraph about a student Ibrahim will be shown on the screen and SS will be asked to read and understand the situation. "Ibrahim leaves home at 9:00 a.m. and attends his class at ITI at 10:30 a.m. ------ he hasn't arrived yet" Ss will talk about possible reasons why Ibrahim has got late. Teacher will guide through the whole activity prompting students to talk about the reasons. This activity will generate the following possible reasons: 1. He must be on the bus now. 2. He might come very soon. 3. He could be taking his breakfast on the restaurant. 4. He could have lost his way. Showing all these possibilities. The teacher will draw attention to these modals. This activity will set in the context of guessing or speculating the possibilities.

Exposure to Target Language (7 minutes) • To expose the students to the target language and to see the grammatical item in use through a guided discovery.

At this stage, students will be exposed to the TL language through power point slides, These slides have been prepared to make the difference between modals usage in present and past situation. These slides will be shown. They have pictures that set a context and students will use these modals to talk about possibilities. The answer key will reinforce this input. Besides this, teacher will give them some more examples to show possibilities, like Ali lives in Istanbul. He goes to the hospital every day. He must be a doctor, or He could be a patients. He might be sick. etc. eliciting from the students.

Clarification Stage (8 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

At this stage the following important steps will be finished. 1. to explain the difference between the main verbs and the modals with examples 2. to exlain meanings and usage of modals 3. The rules (will be extracted from the students) regulating the modals 4. to explain the form of modals in present and past The teacher again will show the paragraph shown at the lead- in stage. The difference between the present simple verbs and modal verbs will be given by comparing them: Ibrahim leaves his home at 9:00 a.m. It is 10:20 a.m, now. He must be on his way to ITI. He might be sitting on a restaurant to have his breakfast. 1. Attention will be drawn to the verb in the first sentence "leaves" and the modal verb in " must be" in the second sentence. 2. How to make negatives in both the sentences. 3.How to make questions in both the sentences. 4. The verb in the first sentence adds "s" but there is no addition with the modal verb. 5. The use of bare infinite with modals Then the teacher will write some sentences using these modals in present and past form and elicit the form from the students. Subject + modal + base form Subject + modal + have + past participle After extracting the form, the teacher will teach how to pronounce the modals.

Practice Stage 1 (controlled) (8 minutes) • To practice the grammatical item (modals verbs showing speculation) in a controlled activity

Before introducing this stage, write two sentences on the board. 1.People thought party was not good. (may) 2. People are happy to find places at the concert. (must) The first sentence is in past tense. So, we add "have" with may and this is a past situation. People may have thought party was good. In the second case, the situation is present, so we speculate in present. People must be happy to find places at the concert. By explaining this, they will be told to complete the sentences. They will sit in pairs and complete the task. While they do the task, teacher would move around and see if they need any help.

Practice Stage 2 (semi controlled) (7 minutes) • to practice modal verbs of speculation in semi-controlled situation.

At this stage,students will be told to focus on this before doing the activity: Must = It is used to express certainty (see, i am positive) Can't = to express impossibility / inability ( see i don't think anyway) Might = not sure (see, I'm not sure) After this a little explanation, handout will be given to them and they will work in pair to fill in the blanks. This activity will surely reinforce their understanding of modal verbs of speculation.

Freer Productive Stage (9 minutes) • to practice the modals of speculation in a productive way (writing)

Students will sit in the groups of 3 each . They will be given a handout (or they already have it) with three pictures of magicians playing different tricks. Students will sit and speculate about these tricks. Ex. He must be an expert, He must have practiced a lot etc. First, they will discuss as a group and later write these sentences on the paper. At the end they will share their speculations to the class. During this activity, the teacher will first give instructions and and later supervise the whole activity.

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