Todd Johns Todd Johns

Pre-Intermediate level


In this lesson, students will learn about relative clauses and relative pronouns under the context of "festivals." Students will be gauged on their knowledge of reflexive clauses through a quick warmer. After that, they will be given the rules for usage. They will be tested for their understanding of correct reflexive pronouns, replacement of previous pronouns, combining sentences, and finally with free practice.


Abc Mardi Gras cards
Abc Exercise Sheet
Abc Pictures of Mardi Gras

Main Aims

  • To provide practice of relative clauses in the context of festivals.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in conversations in the context of the best student created festival.


Lead-in (6-7 minutes) • Set the context and test for use of relative clauses

-Tell the students that Mardi Gras is a major holiday where I'm from -Called "Fat Tuesday" because it celebrates eating before a fast. -With your partner, use these handouts to describe the festival. Talk only. Do not write. CCQs: Are we writing or talking? Writing Are we describing Mardi Gras? Yes Listen for use of relative clauses. Write sentences that could be combined using relative clauses on the board.

Introduce relative clauses (4-5 minutes) • Provide the rules and structure for relative clauses.

-(Point out the combinable sentences) Is there a better way to say this? Is there anything wrong with this? Mardi Gras is a festival. It has many colors. = Mardi Gras is a festival which has many colors. Many people wear costumes. They are usually purple, gold, and green. = Many people wear costumes which are usually purple, gold, and green The krewes elect a king of Mardi Gras. He is called The Rex. =The krewes elect a king of Mardi Gras who is called Rex. -Write "Relative Clauses" Who- People Which- Things That - Both = Go back to the sentences and replace with "that." These are "relative pronouns" "What does the relative pronouns replace?" -He, she, it, or they. Why do we do this? -So we don't keep repeating unimportant things. -Helps saves time -They describe or add information NOTE: We will not be covering the other relative pronouns: what, whom, whose, when, were, and why.

Replacing "that" with "who" or "which" (2-3 minutes) • To test students understanding of which relative pronoun to use/replace.

Replace 'that' in the sentences with 'who' or 'which' Work alone. Do not unfold the paper CCQs: What are we replacing? 'that' Will you unfold the paper? No Monitor that students are on task Check with a partner Call on individuals 1. who 2. which 3. which 4. who

Unnecessay Words (3-4 minutes) • To check whether student continue to use pronouns that are supposed to be replaced.

In this next activity there are three sentences that have an extra word. Find the three words and cross them out. Unfold your papers Check to make sure they understand. Check with a partner. Write 1-6 on the board and ask students if 1 is ok?, 2 is ok?,..... If needed, point out that "who, that, which" are replacements

Joining sentences (5-7 minutes) • To see if students can create relative clauses on their own.

In this exercise there are two sentences. Combine the two sentences using "who, which, or that." Unfold your paper. Monitor for understanding Check with a partner Write 1-6 on the board Ask students to write the relative pronoun they used NOTE: Remind them "that" can be used with any of them.

Focus on Language (2-4 minutes) • For the students to recognize grammar structures used in iteneraries.

Begin by asking the students who the author is talking to. (You) Point out that we don't have to use "you" in the sentence. Show that "you" is assumed in one of the sentences from the guide "Start with a pre-dinner drink in one of Beyoğlu's rooftop bars." -What is the subject? (you) -Is this sentence okay? (yes) "You, start with a pre-dinner drink in one of Beyoğlu's rooftop bars."

Free Practice (20-25 minutes) • To test students use of relative clauses without help.

Split into 4 or 5 groups Each group is going to create their own festival. Discuss in your groups the: Festival name Reason for celebrating How long it will last Food and drinks Will there be costumes? Where will it be? Colors? Try to be creative as possible. We will vote on the best festival. Give the groups time to create their festival. Match up the groups to compare At the end: You can not vote for your own group. Raise your hand if you liked _______ the best. etc

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