Shakur Jabbar Shakur Jabbar

Grammar: Modals
Upper intermediate level


In this lesson, Ss will learn about the modals: obligation, permission, prohibition, and lack of prohibition. They will learn the meanings and be given opportunities to practice the correct form through speaking and listening exercises.


Abc Student's book HO
Abc Tapescript 2.8 (audio)
Abc Workbook HO
Abc Choose the correct phrase HO
Abc Form ppt

Main Aims

  • To provide practice using modals and phrases to express permission, obligation, and prohibition

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide Ss an opportunity to listen and practice speaking TL


Lead in (3-4 minutes) • To engage the Ss and introduce them to TL

I'll write the sentence on the WB from the reading lesson, "We had to make sure we didn't disrupt the day to day work of the office." I'll elicit the meaning of "had to" as obligation. "Is there another way we could say that some 'had to' do something?"

Testing Meaning (8-12 minutes) • To gauge students' prior knowledge of the target language

Ss will work in PW/ small groups and rewrite the sentence changing the highlighted phrase to the correct form of the verb. Ss will peer-check after, then check the reading text for the correct answers. Variations will be addressed if they occur.

Guided Discovery (6-8 minutes) • To enable Ss to revise and discover the meaning of the TL

Using a chart, Ss will place the phrases from ex.1 under the correct column. A chart will be drawn on the board as well. Ss will PW, then glutac the correct phrases under the correct column on the WB. WCFB, ans. any Qs, then proceed.

Clarifying the Meaning (4-8 minutes) • To allow Ss to learn the correct meaning and function of the TL.

Ss will be given a gap fill ex. with the modals removed. They must match the correct form of the modal with the correct tense. This will reinforce the meaning from the prior exercise.PW the FB.

Learning Form (3-5 minutes) • To clarify the form and pronunciation of TL

We'll work on pronunciation at this stage and when to use and not to use the word 'to' with modals. We will use a sentence or two from the previous exercise to demonstrate the correct form.

Controlled Written Practice (4-6 minutes) • To check Ss understanding of the TL

While working in pairs, Ss will complete ex 2 p. 48. Ss will fill in the correct answer that completes the sentence. Ans. will be posted outside the class and Ss will go to check their ans. then we'll ans. any Qs in WCFB if needed

Freer Oral Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide Ss an opportunity for freer oral practice

Exercise 1p. 81 Ss will form a circle since the class is small, and discuss ideas of making their school a healthier or (happier) place to study. Time permitting we'll take some of the more interesting suggestions, esp. those where the TL is used.

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