Ahmed Adel Ahmed Adel

Week 6 - S5
Upper-Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn how to use hedging as well as how to give references.


Abc Cards
Abc Coloured Cards
Abc Coloured Markers
Abc Coloured Strips
Abc PowerPoint Presentation
Abc Smart Board
Abc White Board
Abc SB
Abc HO1
Abc HO2

Main Aims

  • To provide review and practice of language used for hedging in the context of academic essays
  • To provide clarification and practice of language used for hedging in the context of academic essays

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a presentation in the context of students' chosen topics


Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Greet students and take attendance. Show them the following sentences (variants are there depending on the rapport/class response/gender) on the smart board and ask them about their impression. "What do you think of these statements? Discuss in pairs then tell me." All women cannot drive. All men are liars. Air pollution is caused by microbuses. Using the internet for studying is a waste of time. Listen to their answers and try to direct their responses towards something like "generalising...biased...certain..." Tip: If they do not get the idea, try showing them the two sentences: Air pollution is caused by microbuses. Air pollution is likely caused by microbuses. With "likely" highlighted, SS should be able to get the idea. Tell them that this is called "hedging" and ask why we use this in academic writing. Elicit: To express possibility rather than certainty.

Exposure #1 (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Students work in pairs. Show SS the sentences from ex. 7.1 p. 90 (HO1). a. A focus on profits can lead to involvement in corruption scandals. b. Large international companies play an increasing role in everyday lives of people across the world. Let them answer the questions: 1. In which one a claim is hedged? Underline the language used to hedge the claim. 2. Why is it better to hedge this claim? Give them 1 minute. When finished, they check with another pair, then see the answer on the board. Now, SS work in groups of 4 (use cards). Give them HO2 (the table in ex. 7.1) and let them match the two columns (preferably on the wall). Give them 3 minutes. When finished, SS check other groups' work on the wall. Display answer on the board.

Highlighting and Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To draw students' attention to and highlight the meaning of the target language

Students now work individually. They look at ex. 7.2 p. 90 then underline the hedges and add them to the table in 7.1. Demo the first one with them (given). Give them 4 minutes. ICQs: What will you underline? Hedges. What will you do after underlining? Put them in the table. Will you work alone or in pairs? Alone/Individually. How much time do you have? 4 mins. Monitor discretely and provide support whenever necessary. When finished, SS check in pairs before checking the answers on the smart board.

Practice (13-15 minutes) • To provide students with practice of the target language

Divide SS into pairs using coloured cards. SS work on ex. 7.3 p. 90. They have 8 sentences. Some sentences need hedging. Which ones? There may be more than one possible answer. Demo the first one with them (given). Give them 4 minutes. ICQs: Will you add hedges to all sentences? No. Will you work individually or in pairs? In pairs. How much time do you have? 4 mins. Monitor closely and assure them that they can have different correct answers. When finished, display the answers on the board (after checking with another pair). Students now work individually. They need to look again at the conclusion they wrote in 6.4a and add hedges where appropriate (ex. 7.4). Give them 5 minutes. Play some soft music in the background. Monitor and take some notes while they are adding hedges so that you can provide feedback and error correction. When finished, they swap sheets and check the hedges they have added. Give whole-class feedback on language.

Exposure #2 (13-15 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Remind SS of the referencing conventions they studied in Unit 3 ex. 10.2 p. 49. Make sure they remember the "author-date" system. Students work in groups of 4 (use cards again). Ask them some simple questions before they start answering the activity (ex. 8.1 p. 91). Jenkins, J. (2003). What does "J" stand for? What does the date refer to? etc. Now each group should answer Q1-15. Demo the first one with them (given). Give them 10 minutes. When finished, they can check the answers of their colleagues in other groups. Display answers on the board. Check if they need any clarification.

Follow-up (13-15 minutes) • To give students a further chance for in-class practice

Remind SS that they need to submit ASDT1 (final version) on Canvas by (date?). Give SS 10 minutes to search for (or prepare) their academic articles to get the approval for their presentations. Each SS can come and suggest a topic. If appropriate (academic, relevant, etc), it can be approved; the student then will have to search for academic articles of the same suggested topic. Make sure that the article is academic. Once approved, SS can sign their name (and topic) in the sheet provided by you.

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