Ahmed Adel Ahmed Adel

Week 6 - S4
Upper-Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn how to write conclusions in essays.


Abc Coloured Cards
Abc Coloured Markers
Abc PowerPoint Presentation
Abc SB
Abc Smart Board
Abc White Board
Abc Cards
Abc HO1
Abc HO2

Main Aims

  • To provide process writing practice of a conclusion in the context of nature vs nurture

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a debate in the context of nature vs nurture


Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Greet students and take attendance. Show them a skeleton of an essay missing the conclusion. Ask them what is missing. Elicit: conclusion. Let SS sit in groups to discuss what the conclusion usually includes. Give them 2 minutes. When finished, have an open-class feedback on content.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide a model of production expected in coming tasks through reading

Ask SS about the essay types they studied in Unit 1 p. 20. Remind them of the types if necessary. Show SS the table on p. 88ز Let them discuss in pairs what each type should include. Give them 4 minutes. When finished, show them the answers on the board (in the PPT). Change pairs using coloured cards. Let them brainstorm more ideas to include in the conclusion. Give them 2 minutes. When finished, show them sample ideas on the board.

Useful Language (13-15 minutes) • To highlight and clarify useful language for coming productive tasks

Students work in groups of 4. Divide them by distributing cards and asking them to find their partners (each number has 4 cards). Show SS the following title on the board: "People are more alike than different. How far do you agree with that statement?" Ask them what type of essay it is. Elicit: Defend. In groups, SS should read the conclusion (ex. 6.2, p. 89) and decide which elements from the table in 6.1 (p. 88) are included. They should then write the words in bold in 6.1 next to the relevant sections of the conclusion. Demo the first one (given) with the SS. Look at the first sentence. What is the writer doing? Yes, he's giving a brief reminder of the aims. ICQs: What type of essay is it again? Defend. Which words from the table will you write? Bold ones. Where will you write them? Next to the relevant section. Give them 5 minutes. Monitor discretely and provide support if needed. When finished, randomly select one from each group to mention the sentence and relevant element. Next, display the answer on the board. Tip: Change groups for the following activity if SS are talkative/too friendly with each other. As a further task for "useful language", ask students to highlight "sentence markers". Give them 2 minutes. Listen to them and give feedback if necessary. Now, ask them to criticise the conclusion individually: What did the writer do that we consider "not academic"? How can we improve it? ICQs: Will you work alone or in groups? Alone. What will you highlight? What's not academic. What will you do after highlighting? Improve the conclusion. Give them 3 minutes. When finished, SS exchange sheets and edit for each other. Select some samples and discuss them with the whole class.

Productive Task (18-20 minutes) • To provide an opportunity to practise target productive skills

SS work individually now to write a conclusion. Show them ex. 6.4a p. 89: Look at the work you did to prepare for writing the essay in 1.2 with the title ‘Do we, as individuals, behave in a certain way because we “were born that way” or do we behave that way because our environment “taught” us to be have that way?’ Discuss this ‘nature’ vs ‘nurture’ debate. Now write a conclusion to the essay of about 100 words. Remind SS to check the elements of the table in 6.1. Let each student look at the ideas they prepared for that topic. Ask them to "plan" for the introduction first before they start writing. Give them 15 minutes. Play some soft music in the background (allow them to use their headphones/airpods if they do not want to listen to the tracks you are playing). Monitor discretely and offer help if needed. Take some notes of the common mistakes for the following stage.

Feedback and Error Correction (10-12 minutes) • To provide feedback on students' production and use of language

You can have a quick look at the conclusions in the break (if you need more sample common mistakes). SS sit in groups of 4 (using cards again). Write about 5-7 sentences on the board, some of which are correct and some are wrong. Ask SS to decide which are correct and which are wrong, then correct the wrong ones. ICQs: What will you do with the wrong sentences? Correct them. Will you work individually or in groups? In groups. Give them 3 minutes. When finished, have an open-class feedback on language. Now, SS work in pairs (each with the next partner). They check their partner's conclusions with the checklist they have in HO1. They need to check whether the elements are included or not, then discuss them with the partner. ICQs: What are you checking in your friend's conclusion? The elements in HO1. What if an element is missing? Tell my partner and discuss it with them. Give them 6 minutes for checking and discussions. Monitor discretely and encourage more discussions between partners.

Follow-up (13-15 minutes) • To give students a further task for in-class practice

SS work in groups. Each group is to take HO2 and match the headings of the phrases to their matching phrases. Demo the first one with them. Give them 6 minutes. When finished, SS check with other groups before you show the answers on the board. Distribute cards on SS and let them sit in 2 big groups. Group A: We were born to behave that way. Group B: We were taught to behave that way. Tell them that even if they are not convinced with that opinion, they need to brainstorm ideas together to defend their point and prove the other team wrong. Give them 7 minutes to brainstorm ideas. When finished, tell them they need to use the "debate phrases" when they start. Each team should nominate two to present their ideas in 2 mins max, then each team can refute the other team's idea in 1 min. ICQs: What will I focus on in your debate? Debate language. How long will you present your idea? 2 mins. How long will you refute the others' ideas? 1 min. When finished, give feedback on both language and content.

Web site designed by: Nikue