David Valencia David Valencia



Abc Krantz and Roberts, Oxford University Press (2016) Navigate Coursebook B2.

Main Aims

  • By the end of the lesson learners will have been clarified and will have practiced with modals of deduction like "She could have been sick" in the context of situations at work

Subsidiary Aims

  • To give the learners the opportunity to practice their fluency for speaking in the post-task discussion about the TL
  • To enable learners to practice MFP of new lexical items from the text


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

• T tells learners what the topic is "RULES AT WORK" T shares an example of rules at work and builds rapport to have them interact • T asks, HAVE YOU EVER HAD A BOSS WHO INSISTED ON STRANGE RULES? •T asks learners to discuss the question in pairs for a couple of minutes. • T monitors. • T asks learners to socialize some ideas. • T conducts OCFB.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

T displays a slide with some rules at work Reading for gist: T asks learners: DO YOU THINK THESE RULES ARE USEFUL OR USELESS? I used to work somewhere where the company insisted on us parking our cars all facing the same way. We were expected to eat lunch sitting at our desks. We had to start work very early. There were always team meetings at 7:30 am. We were forbidden to use cups without lids. Then T provides a link to JAMBOARD which contains some possible causes of these rules: Match the rule with the appropriate cause. The causes contain the TL modals of deduction

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

MEANING • T provides a link to google forms where learners can find some possible deductions about the rules highlighted before. It MUST HAVE BEEN a way of making the car park look tidier or something! They MAY HAVE NEEDED people to stay in order to answer the phone. The managers CAN'T HAVE LET themselves waste time during the morning They will have to do a self-discovery task in pairs to decide the meaning for each case: We use MUST/CAN'T/MIGHT/COULD+HAVE+PAST PARTICIPLE to make ___deductions______ about the past event or situation. Use _____MUST HAVE + PP_______ when you are almost certain something happened or was true. When you are almost certain something is not true, or didn't happen, use _____CAN'T HAVE + P.P______. When you are guessing about what happened or you think something possible happened or was true use __________MIGHT/COULD/MAY HAVE + P.P.______________. After answering the learners have some time to compare their answers The teacher displays some different and personalized modeled sentences with the TL included and highlighted to clarify if necessary. Martin did really well on his exam, so he must have studied hard for it. I don’t remember seeing Liliana at school yesterday, so she can’t have broken the window. But… Alice was at school yesterday, so she could/might/may have broken it FORM -Teacher displays the form slides with the modeled sentences and TL and asks: What type of word is it? What type of structure is it? T elicits data from learners to clarify the usage of Modal verbs and present perfect Pronunciation - T models the pronunciation of the phrases and learners identify the stress of each item. -Teacher shows the intonation features and the weak form of have - T drills individually and chorally

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

• Instructions: Complete the sentences by filling the gaps using the correct expression for each situation. • T provides a link to Google Forms where Ss can work. • T Demos the task • Learners answer individually • Check answers in pairs. • T conducts OCFB

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

• Instructions: You will work in pairs and you will have given a picture of a situation at work The idea is to make deductions about the possible reason the person experiences his/her current state. You will need to use some of the future expressions that we practiced: Modals of deduction Use the chat in the zoom or your notebook to write the ideas. DEMO the task E.g., Man asleep at work: He might have worked all night long FEEDBACK • T conducts OCFB and asks for information about the groups. • T selects incorrect sentences and writes them on the board to eventually correct them. • T conducts Delayed Feedback

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