Abdullah Abdullah

Functional Language- Modals of Deduction
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students will learn the functional language of modals of deduction which present the degree of certainty. SS will begin with short discussion about pictures presented on the WB. then they will listen to a conversation about the same pictures. TL will be presented through model sentences taken from the listening. T will draw a table with the the modals of deduction presenting the degree of certainty and present other phrases that also present the degree of certainty. Ss will be given 2 controlled practice activities. The students will then engage in a freer speaking task. Finally, delayed feedback will be offered to correct errors from the final speaking activity.


No materials added to this plan yet.

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of language used for expressing the degree of certainty in the context of travelling.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide gist listening practice using a text about a trip round the world in the context of travelling


Warmer/ Lead-in (2-5 minutes) • to set lesson context and engage students.

T shows the students 4 pictures of different places. T asks Ss, in pairs, to guess where these places are and why they think so. Ss start discussing the places. ICC: Are you going to work in individually or pairs? pairs T asks each pair to give their answers to the class and give reason for their answers.

Pre-Listening (1-2 minutes) • To prepare students for the conversation and make it accessible

T sets the context of the recording and puts the names of the four countries mentioned in the audio.

While- Listening (1-2 minutes) • to have the students find the information from the audio

T instructs the students to listen to the audio. He tells them to match the pictures with the countries written on the board, individually. ICQ: Are you going to read or listen? listen Are you going to work in pairs or individually? in pairs

Feedback • to check the students understanding

T asks the students to work in pairs and asks them compare their answers. After they finish T asks some Ss to come to the board and post a name of a country under a picture. T gives WC feedback.

TL presentation (4-8 minutes) • to introduce Ss to the target languge

T asks Ss some CCQs about the conversation to present the TL indirectly. Who was talking in the conversation with Amy, Conrad or Joe? Joe were they sure that waterfalls are in Vietnam? no did they say it could be India or Vietnam or it must be? it could be was Joe sure that the picture of the high buildings in Singapore? yes Did he say it must be Singapore or it could be? it must be Now, T gives the students a HO of some sentences that include modals of deduction and students have to fill the missing modals. Ss discuss their answers in pairs and then T gives feed back. T presents another HO for the students that includes the modal auxiliaries of deduction and asks the students to think about other phrases that might give the same meaning of these modals.

Controlled practice #1 (5-10 minutes) • To have the students practice TL in fill in the gaps activity

T shows Ss a HO and instructs the students to do fill in the gaps activity, individually. ICQ: are you going to read or listen? read are you going to work individually or in pairs? indivudally will choose more than answer for each space? no, one answer only. Then, T instructs Ss compare their answers in groups. T asks each group to write one answer on WB and then T gives WC feedback.

Pre- Speaking Activity (4-10 minutes) • to prepare students to do a speaking activity based on the current activity.

T shows Ss a table of information about 6 countries. the information is about the population, official language ...etc. T instructs the Ss to work in groups and try to guess to which country the information belong. name of the countries will be provided. Teacher does not confirm Ss answers at this stage. He gives feed back after the speaking activity.

Free Speaking activity. (5-10 minutes) • to have the students practice speaking and TL

T writes a model sentence on the WB " Country "c" must be Brazil because it's the country with the biggest population and they speak Portuguese there." T chooses three colors and names each student with a color. Then, he instructs Ss to sit together according the colors given to them. T instructs to uses the model sentence to talk about their answers. After they finish, T gives WC feedback.

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