Oksana Oksana

Modals of deduction
B1 level


A text-based grammar lesson presented in the context of giving first aid.


Abc Listening
Abc Grammar
Abc Grammar rules
Abc PowerPoint Presentation

Main Aims

  • By the end of the lesson will be able to use modals of deduction in the context of giving first aid.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide gist listening practice using a recording about first-aid course.
  • To provide detailed listening practice using a recording with a multiple choice task in the context of giving fist aid
  • To provide accuracy speaking practice in a speculating task in the context of a police inteview.


Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T: What's this? (A first-aid kit) Why do we use it? (To help someone, to give first aid) Have you ever given first aid to other people? (SS' own answers) Have you ever been given first aid? What happened? (SS' own answers) What skills can you learn on a first-aid course?

Pre-teaching vocabulary (3-5 minutes) • To prevent problems with blocking vocabulary during listening

T: Look at the picture. What's wrong with him? (elicit: bleeding). CCQs: Is he injured? Is he losing blood? Drill pronunciation. Elicit part of speech (noun, countable). T: What's this person learning to do? (elicit: CPR) CCQs: Are they helping someone? Are they pressing on their chest? Do they want to start their heart? Drill pronunciation. Elicit part of speech (noun, uncountable), elicit collocation: give CPR T: What's wrong with him? (elicit: unconscious) CCQs: Is he sleeping? Can he see anything? Can he hear anything? Is he healthy? Drill pronunciation. Elicit part of speech (adjective) T: If someone is unconscious, you should put them in a recovery position. CCQs: Should you put them on their back or on their side? IS it easier for them to breathe? Drill pronunciation. Elicit part of speech (noun, singular).

Exposure (2-4 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

T: Open your books on page 52. Look at the task in exercise 2. What's a synonym? (A word with the same/similar meaning) How can they help you do a listening task? (SS' own ideas) Check your ideas in the Exam Skill box. Were you right? Let's do exercise 2 now. ICQs: Do you need to listen? (Yes) How many questions do you answer? (Two) Do you need to write? (Yes) SS listen to the recording, compare their answers with a partner. FB: Elicit ideas from a random student, check ob IWB

Listening for detail (10-13 minutes) • To develop students' listening for detailed comprehension

T: Look at the task in exercise 3. Underline the key words in the questions. Look at the options A-C in each question. With partners, paraphrase or think of synonyms for each option. SS work in 3 groups. Each group paraphrases options in different questions (1-2, 3-4, 5-6). FB: elicit ideas from each group. The rest of the class make notes. T: Now, listen to the recording, choose the correct answer. Listen again. Check your ideas. Compare with a partner. FB: T shows answers on IWB, SS compare with their own answers.

Productive follow-up (2-4 minutes) • To respond to the text in a personal way

T: Look at the Culture box. Read the question. FB: The class discuss the question open-class, the teacher moght ask some additional questions.

Highlighting (3-4 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

T: Look at the sentences on the screen. Paraphrase them by completing the second sentence with one word. FB: SS suggest answers open class.

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

Meaning: Which sentence has zero chances to happen? (4) Which sentence has 100% chance to happen? (1) Are they opposites? (Yes) Do they express certainty or possibility? (Certainty) Which situation has more chances to happen - in sentence 2 or 3? (2) Does it express possibility or probability? (Probability) What about sentence 3? (Possibility) Form: What modal verb do we use to express positive sertainty? (Must) Negative certainty? (Can't) Is it possible to use mustn't or can? (No) What modal verbs can we use for possibility? (May / Might) Is it possible to use negative forms? (Yes) What modal do we use for probability? (should) Can we use any other modal for it? (Ought to) SS check their answers in SB p. 153 Pronunciation: T drills the sentences. SS repeat chorally.

Controlled Practice (4-7 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

1. SS follow the link sent by the teacher and complete the task individually. The teacher can see the results in the rating chart. 2. T: Look at exercise 1 on page 52. What can you see in the picture? (A woman blowing her nose) Might she have a cold? (Yes) Might she have an allergic reaction? (Yes) read the text quickly and check what hay fever is. FB: Elicit answer open class. T: Read the text again. Choose the correct answer. Compare with a partner. FB: Teacher shows the answers on IWB. SS compare with their ideas.

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

T: Look at the ictures in exercise 2. Who can you see? (An operator, a boy talkign on the phone, an injured girl). With a partner, make deductions about these people. ICQs: How many sentences do you need to write? (6) Do you need to use modals? (Yes) Should you use your own ideas? (Yes) FB: Elicit ideas from each pair of students.

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

T: Look at the photo. What happened? (A car accident) In pairs, make up as many deductions as possible about this accident. Write about: - people's relationships - people's jobs - the reasons of the accident - people's injuries - people's actions - possible first aid SS write sentences in pairs. The teacher monitors and helps. FB: Elicit ideas from each pair. The winner is the pair who has the highest number of grammatically correct sentences.

Error correction (2-4 minutes) • To give delayed feedback on target language

T uses the whiteboard write the mistakes SS made during the lesson and asks them to correct themselves.

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