Tuğba Tuğba

Grammar-Past Deduction
Upper Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn to make past deduction by thinking about possible situations in the past in the context of yhe historical mystery of the remains of Richard III. The function and form of the new language is taught and practiced along with the sub-aim of listening.


Abc Headway Upper-Intermadiate 5th Edition

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of Past Deduction with Modals in the context of History

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide specific information listening practice using a text about excavation in the context of a historical figure


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

The teacher engages students' interest to the topic by asking questions about the historical figure, Richard III. Students also speculate answers by using language models about the context.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

The students listen to the track where the target language occurs. They are exposed to the usage of the target language whilst trying to find a specific information through the speech. Students check their answers with each other in the Breakout Rooms.

Highlighting (2-4 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

The teacher points out the form and highlights how it is structured. Students are asked to identify the particles constituting the form.

Clarification (8-14 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

The eacher elicits the meaning, exlains the usage in detail, clarifies the form and drills the target language in the end. The presentation is supported by many examples of variable contexts.

Controlled Practice (8-15 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

The students are asked to practice two different controlled practices; one of which is choosing he correct past deduction and the other, gap filling. Students work in pairs and the teacher explains the essential points when needed.

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