Grammar and Speaking Lesson, Modals of Obligation Lesson
Intermediate, B2 level


In this lesson, the students learn about the modals of obligation (must/have to/should) through guided discovery based on the reading text they have studied about the millionaires. The lesson starts with a discussion about 'Money or Love'. This is followed by guided discovery of the grammar topics and some activities to fill in the gaps, to match sentence parts and to formulate sentences. Finally, there is a speaking activity about different jobs.


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Abc Handout 1
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Abc Reading text
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Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of the modals of obligation in the context of millionaires

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide accuracy with speaking practice in a conversation in the context of jobs


Warm-up (5-7 minutes) • To enable the students to relax and start feeling comfortable in the class by using a game.

Teacher greets the students and shows them a card and an envelope after writing five numbers on the board randomly. She asks the students to work in pairs and try to guess the relation among these. Next, she gets their predictions, shows the card and says "These are the lucky numbers." Each student is given a different card. One of them has the same numbers with the one teacher has. Teacher gives a small gift to the winners.

Eliciting grammar (10-12 minutes) • To enable the students to understand the meaning of the modals of obligation.

The teacher has big cut-ups of some sentences including must/have to/should and the meanings of them in her hand and sticks them on the board randomly. She demonstrates the first matching exercise on the board. Then she delivers handouts to the students and says " First of all, match the other sentences with their meanings, answer the questions on this page alone and then compare your answers with your partners." She delivers each student a handout and she monitors them while they are answering and comparing their answers. The teacher gives class feedback on the board for the matching exercise and answer key as a handout.

Pre-teach vocabulary (3-5 minutes) • To enable the students to learn vocabulary which takes place in the following activity.

Teacher shows the students some pictures to elicit the words 'container, raccoon, mosquito net' usin OHP. She explains the word 'malaria' saying "It's a disease spread by mosquitos." and makes the students elicit the word 'bite' showing it. She applies ECDW in this stage.

Practising Grammar (8-10 minutes) • To enable the students to practice more using the grammar topics they have learned

Teacher has some handouts, asks the students work in pairs and says "Read and underline the correct alternative to complete the text." She gives handouts to the students. While they are doing the exercise, she monitors them. After each pair finishes the exercise, they compare their answers with another pair. To give W/C feedback, teacher writes the number of the questions and sticks two alternatives next to each number. Each student comes and deletes the wrong option. For the next exercise, teacher asks the students to work in different pairs. She sticks cartoons on the left and right sides of the board. There are sentence parts written on them. She does the first matching as an example on the board and gives handouts including the ones on the board to each pair. While each pair is matching the sentence parts, the teacher monitors them and asks them to compare their answers with another pair when they finish. Finally, she asks each student to do the matchings on the board.

Focus students on 'the jobs' (3-4 minutes) • To make students more familiar with the topic of jobs.

Teacher shows the pictures of three people and asks the students to guess the jobs of these people. Then, she says "Read the paragraphs for each people alone and match them with the jobs." and she gives two minutes for this activity. After each student finishes, teacher asks them to compare their answers with their partners. Teacher monitors them and gives feedback using OHP.

Controlled practice of grammar topics (4-5 minutes) • To enable the students to practice more using the grammar topics they have learned.

Teacher shows the students a sheet using OHP and completes the first sentence as an example. Then, she gives the students a handout for this exercise asks them to do it in pairs and then to compare their answers with another pair. To give feedback, she asks each student to come to the board and write their answer using OHP.

Production (6-8 minutes) • To make the students talk about the jobs using the modals of obligation.

Teacher talks about her own job using modals of obligation to set an example for the students before doing the activity. Then, she says "Think about three different jobs and write sentences about them. What is important and what is not important for these jobs?" After the students write a few sentences for each job alone, teacher asks them to work in pairs and to compare their ideas speaking with their partners.

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