CELTA TP3 Grammar 17 July 2020
Upper Intermediate level
To enable students to review and practice the use and non-use of articles in the context of a text about the benefits of chewing gum.
To enable students to practice their writing and speaking skills while formulating a short dialogue about vacations, using their knowledge of the use and non-use of articles with time and place, and fixed phrases.
Procedure (33-44 minutes)
T greets Ss and welcomes them to class. T shows image of "chewing gum tree" and ask if any of them knows what it is. T describes the "chewing gum tree" and elicits comments from Ss. T shows slide with the following Qs: Do you ever chew gum? Does it help you in any way? Why do you think some people object to people chewing gum? T asks Ss "can anyone tell us what 'object to' means? T elicits/nominates Ss to give their thoughts. T shares screen with text A (pg. 66) and sends link to Google Form in chat: https://forms.gle/1p5cygPmaz7XdrkHA T asks Ss to read the text quickly and choose the best alternative title in the Google Form. T asks Ss to share their answers in OCFB. [Answer = 2] T shares text A (pg. 66) again, this time in Jamboard, and sends link to Ss in chat: https://jamboard.google.com/d/1Oql1sicRrMHn8L24Z8QK1VPL-J25pF3iuVdVh5hRufo/edit?usp=sharing T instructs Ss how to use 'pen' function and asks them to Circle all the indefinite articles (a, an) in green. Circle all the definite articles (the) in blue. Circle all the nouns which do not have an article in yellow. T elicits from each S, and then goes over exercise in OCFB.
INTRODUCTION: T: “That short exercise was a bit of review to get us thinking about ARTICLES.” T: “Can anyone tell the class what an article is?” [Articles are words that define a noun as specific or unspecific.] T: “We see that in the short text we read, there are several articles.” T nominates a S: “___, can you tell us what the first article in the text is?” [a] THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE: MEANING: T: “Is ‘a’ a definite article?” [No] T: “Is it an indefinite article?” [Yes] T: “And what noun does it define?” [study] T: “Do we know what study?” [Not at the outset - it hasn’t been defined yet] T: “So are we using the indefinite article because we don’t know which one?” [Yes] FORM: T: “Let’s look at the example again: does the indefinite article come before or after the noun that it describes?” [before] T: “Can we point to a couple examples?” [a new study, a link] PRONUNCIATION: T: “You might have noticed that the indefinite article has two variations in English. Can anyone tell us what they are?” [a and an] T: “___, do you know why that is?” [because a comes before a noun that starts with a consonant, whereas an comes before a noun that starts with a vowel sound - so it has to do with pronunciation] T: “___, can you think of an example?” [i.e. a book, a drink, a cat, an apple, an idea, an opinion] T: “A and an each have variations in pronunciation. Can anyone tell us what those variations are?” [each one has a weak form and a strong form - Strong: /eɪ/ Weak: /ə/ Strong: /æn/ Weak: /ən/] T: “Does anyone know when the strong form is used?” [we use the strong form for emphasis i.e. when correcting someone.] T: “Here’s an example: ‘I found a [/ə/] cat.’ That’s the weak form, the one we use in normal speech.” T: “Let’s say it again together - ‘I found a [/ə/] cat.’” [drills a couple times] T: “‘I found a [/eɪ/] cat’ is the strong form. We might use that form if someone were to ask ‘did you find the cat?’ and you replied ‘‘I found a [/eɪ/] cat’...” T: “Let’s say it again together - ‘I found a [/eɪ/] cat.’” [drills a couple times] T: “___, can you think of another example of strong versus weak forms, using ‘an’?” [‘Do you share the opinion?’ ‘I have an [/æn/] opinion’] T: “Can we hear any linking when we use the indefinite article?” [yes, with the weak forms] T: “Let’s practice a couple together: I have an idea [drills a couple times] ⤻ Would you like an apple? [drills a couple times] ⤻ I found a cat. [drills a couple times] ⤻ She read a book. [drills a couple times]” ⤻ T: “Great!”
MEANING: T: “There’s another type of article in the text. ___, can you tell us what the other article is?” [the, the definite article] T: “Yes, in the text we have examples “...the author of the study…” and “The link may be connected with the production of oxygen in the brain.” T: “So why would we use the definite article here?” [because we know which one] T: “Is the author of that particular study unique?” [yes, the author is named] T: “Has the study already been mentioned in the text?” [yes, so we know which study is being discussed] T: “So we use the definite article when we know which one, when the noun is something unique, or that has been mentioned before. Is there any other time we use the definite article?”[yes, we use it when it is defined by the phrase that follows it.] T: “An example is: the new student’s name.” Can anyone else think of an example?” [the article’s conclusion, the cat’s tail, etc.] FORM: T: “Let’s look at the example again: does the definite article come before or after the noun that it describes?” [before] T: “Can we point to a couple examples?” [the author of the study; the link; the brain] PRONUNCIATION: T: “Does the definite article have strong and weak forms?” [yes] T: “___, how would you pronounce the strong form?” [/ði/] T: “Let’s say it together: /ði/” [drills a couple times] T: “And ___, how would you pronounce the weak form?” [/ðə/] T: Let’s practice together: /ðə/” [drills a couple times] T: “Can anyone tell us when you would use the strong form?” [we use the strong form for emphasis i.e. when correcting someone] T: “Can you give us an example?” [A: Did you find a job? █ /ði/ B: I found the job!] T: “So where does the stress fall?” [on the definite article] T: “Let’s say it together: I found the job!” [drills a couple times] T: “___, can you tell us when we would use the weak form?” [in everyday speech] T: “And can you give us an example?” [Did you find the cat?] T: T: “Let’s say it together: ‘Did you find the cat?’ [drills a couple times] T: “Excellent!”
MEANING: T: “There’s one more important point when it comes to articles. Let’s look at the text again. Can anyone tell me what they notice?” [nouns that don’t take an article - i.e. ‘teachers’ ‘people’] T: “When do we see a noun without an article?” [when we’re talking about things in general] T: Do we use an article with the names of people or places?” [usually not, but there are many exceptions] T: “Let’s look at some examples of use and non-use of articles with time and place.” T: “Do dates take an article?” [yes, the] Example: the 25th of December / December the 25th T: “What about parts of the day?” [yes, with exceptions] Examples: in the afternoon, in the evening, in the morning (but at night, at lunchtime) T: “___, do decades or centuries take an article?” [yes] Examples: the 1980s, the 21st century T: “How about years or seasons?” [no] Example: in 2002, in summer T: “Do months or days need an article?” [no] Example: in August, on Friday, see you tomorrow T: “Now let’s go over some examples of use and non-use of articles with place.” T: “Do the names of most countries, continents, islands, etcetera take an article?” [no] T: But there are some exceptions. Can anyone tell us the name of a country that does take the definite article?” [The Czech Republic | the Netherlands | the UK | the USA] T: “If we’re talking about a region, do we use the definite article?” [no] Examples: North-west India | Northern Europe T: “But, we do say, for example: In the east of the country | in the south of Italy | on the coast” T: “There are other specifics to consider regarding place and the definite article, as well as some fixed phrases with and without articles. I’m afraid that the only way to learn these is practice, practice, practice!” T: “On that note, let’s do an exercise together!”
T shares screen with part B of the text. T: “Now let’s look at part B of the text about chewing gum and memory.” T: “For this part of the text, I would like you to work in pairs to read the text and choose the correct article - a/an, the or no article - for each.” T: “Let’s have a look:” T sends like to Google Form in chat: https://forms.gle/gQ1AAUhojbQJCfkg7 and sends text as JPEG in chat as well. T: “You’ll see that here you have the text, and what follows are drop-down boxes for each letter. Work with your partner to select the correct article or no article for each one, then submit your answers. You have 5 minutes.” ICQ: Are we working individually or in pairs? [in pairs] ICQ: How many minutes do we have? [5 minutes] T send Ss to breakout rooms and monitors, listening for anything to address in DEC. T calls Ss back to main session and takes up answers in OCFB.
T: “Wonderful! Okay, now I would like you to work with the same partner and take 5 minutes to create a short dialogue about what you would like to do on vacation using your knowledge of the use and non-use of articles with expressions of time and place, and fixed phrases, as you can.” T sends PDF of time, place and fixed phrases slides in chat. T shows slide with instructions and example: A: I’m so excited, my vacation starts on the 1st of August! B: You’re so lucky, I haven’t had a vacation since the 1990s! Oh wait, my last vacation was actually in 2002. So, where will you go on vacation? A: Well, I would love to go to Asia… but because of COVID-19 I’ll have to spend my vacation at home... ICQ: Are we working with the same partner? [yes] ICQ: How many minutes do we have? [5 minutes] T send Ss to breakout rooms and monitors, listening for anything to address in DEC. T calls Ss back to the main session and elicits/nominates one or two pairs to share their dialogue.
T and Ss continue listening to dialogues if more time is needed. T addresses any errors noted while monitoring in breakout rooms. T thanks Ss for their time and their hard work and says goodnight :)