TP 6 - Writing
By the end of the lesson, learners will have written in a controlled and freer manner an essay in the context of presenting arguments for and against a controversial topic of their choice (smoking in public places ban, wearing a seatbelt in all forms of motorized transport, or other)
Learners will have analyzed and discovered proper composition of a “For and against” essay (introduction, arguments for, arguments against, conclusion); and practiced collocations, expressions, linking words relevant to the essay they will write.
Procedure (37-48 minutes)
Greeting, introduction. T asks Ss to open Slide 1 on Google Slides https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1dWHwXb-yDJSCbS6JcvGiQH4jaa5ANeEqU1VHM1ECJS8/edit?usp=sharing Ss are presented with visuals for the lead-in. Qs: Do you always wear a seat belt in a car? In a taxi? On a bus? Explain your answer. OCFB 2-3 minutes
Slide 2 Ss read the essay – 3 minutes For and Against Essay Doctors today voted overwhelmingly for a total ban on smoking in public places. They want it outlawed in shops, bars, restaurants and at work to cut deaths from lung cancer and heart diseases. The call follows a decision by the Irish government to make smoking in public illegal. The problem is the conflict that arises between smokers enjoying their cigarettes in areas where non-smokers are present. Evidence suggests that passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer by up to thirty percent and heart disease by twenty to twenty three percent. It is certainly true that passive smoking is also harmful to children and pets that are exposed to cigarette smoke, increasing their rate of cancer and other diseases. Another point in favor of public smoking ban is that smoking harms our environment with all off its inhabitants. All the plastic filters, cigarette butts, and other elements of smoked cigarettes tend to pollute waterways, soil, and beaches. The most recent lab studies prove that such toxic compounds of cigarettes as pesticide residues and nicotine are harmful to fish and microorganisms. Over the last few years several cities and countries, including Finland, South Africa, and Thailand, already have finalized the legislation to ban smoking in public. But critics say the ban is difficult to enforce. Another argument against the public smoking ban is that governments raise enormous amounts of tax on cigarette sales; hundreds of thousands of people work in the cigarette industry directly and indirectly. In conclusion, many people nowadays think that smoking should be labeled illegal in all public places all over the globe. In my opinion, this would improve the state of health of every person or animal. (The text is taken and adapted from Cutting Edge Upper-Intermediate Student Book p.124 and https://howtowrite.customwritings.com/post/argumentative-essay-smoking-public-places/ ) After 3 minutes T asks Ss to analyze the text and identify the elements of layout that provide coherence and cohesion of the text. Ss will need to identify - Paragraphs / sections which have clear focus - The layout is relevant to the text-type - That there is a method to organize ideas: a paragraph to introduce the topic, all the way to final paragraph for conclusion. Slide 3 Elicit answers from Ss Qs: When do we write essays? Arguing, explaining … What kind of text is this? A fairy tale, an academic writing, a letter to a friend? – An academic writing T elicits further knowledge: How do we know it is not a fairy tale? Why do you think it is not a letter to a friend? Ss identify relevant language conventions according to text-type, genre and audience: Formal letters: Dear Sir / Madam, Looking forward to hearing from you,. Fairy tales: ones upon a time… / And they lived happily ever after.. Academic writing: No use of contractions, use of impersonal structures to introduce / develop ideas Do we use formal or informal language for this kind of text? Why is it divided into paragraphs? Is it important to have the paragraphs in a certain order? Why? What parts of this text can you identify? – Go to slide 4. Slide 4 Ss organize the parts of the text in correct order. T asks one S to gather opinions of the group and put the text blocks in order. - Introduction: a shirt introduction to the topic and why it’s interesting - Arguments for: 2 or 3 arguments in favor of the statement - Arguments against: 2 or 3 arguments against the statement - Conclusion: your own opinion T elicits: Now, what provides coherence and cohesion for the text? Certain phrases and collocations. What is coherence? A quality to be logical and consistent. What is cohesion? An action of forming a united whole.
Ss identify language needed in the piece of writing. T: Let’s analyze phrases that are underlined in the text. T shares the screen and opens the write board with functional language to analyze. Meaning Another point in favor of … is - supporting a person / an idea / a proposal. For the benefit of something. CCQs Do I want to say something else? Yes Do I want to say something different from what I said before? Yes Is it a supporting statement or disapproving? Supporting Over the last few years – - something that stated happening not too long ago (a few years) and has been happening ever since CCQs Are we talking about past or present? – Past Was it a long time ago, like last century? - No Was it a one-time action? – No, it was going on for a few years One argument against … is – Expressing a reasoning against CCQs Is it a supporting statement? No Can it be used in a debate or a discussion? - Yes In conclusion – Final statement that sums up the information given previously CCQs Can I start a conversation with this phrase? – No Can it follow an argument? - Yes Does it sum up previously given information? -Yes Many people nowadays think that – states what opinions many people have these days CCQs Is it about present or future? – Present When is it happening? – Now In my opinion – personal thoughts, someone’s view point CCQs Am I saying this because I have proof of something? – No Am I expressing my point of view? - Yes Form 1/ Another point in favor of + noun / gerund / objective pronoun + is + compliment 2/ Over the last few years + compliment The compliment verb is in Present Perfect tense. 3/ One argument against + noun / gerund + is + compliment 4/ In conclusion + compliment 5/ Many people nowadays think that + compliment NOW-A-DAYS (these days) Synonyms: They think now, at the moment, in this day and age, these days, today 6/ In my opinion + compliment In conclusion + compliment Synonyms: In summary, finally Synonyms: View, point of view, judgement, viewpoint, assessment, evaluation *********************** Fill in the gaps https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe_vaW6fIFrG6YUWN24XXrTJKYQJLe-gZ6ARbmF9XJfWZn1Ug/viewform?usp=sf_link 1/ Another point in favor of the early birds is that evidence has shown they're more likely to stick with their fitness routines. 2/ Over the last few years Smartphone camera quality has improved over the last few years. 3/ One argument against … is One argument against cutting greenhouse gas emissions is that it may threaten economic growth. 4/ In conclusion In conclusion, dress semi-formal. 5/ Many people nowadays think that Many people nowadays watch cable or satellite channels rather than the main networks. 6/ In my opinion In my opinion eating animals is wrong. OCFB
The learners will plan for a “For and Against” essay: Look at slide 4 - Introduction: a short introduction to the topic and why it’s interesting - Arguments for: 2 or 3 arguments in favor of the statement - Arguments against: 2 or 3 arguments against the statement - Conclusion: your own opinion Slide 6 T: These are phrases that can be useful for your writing: One argument against … is Another point in favor of … is Many people nowadays think that There are two main reasons why I think In my opinion It is certainly true that On the other hand Over the last few years Firstly, Secondly, To sum up In conclusion Ss open Google Forms and their individual folder https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1RO2usqlhqkqAfdFWo6xAm4mRxCRhjOiQ T instructs that Ss need to write an assay (100-120 words) about one of the titles below using the plan discussed earlier. Choose the topic, you will have 15 minutes to write. 1/ What are the arguments for and against banning smoking in all public places? 2/ What are the arguments for and against making it compulsory to wear seat belts in all forms of motorized transport (including buses and taxis)? 3/ New fertilization techniques make it possible for women to have babies in their fifties, or even sixties. Should they be allowed to have children at this age? 4/ Should people be allowed to have cosmetic surgery before age of eighteen? (Taken from Student Book Ex 4 p.124) Ss write and publish their essays for everyone to read on Google Forms. (15 minutes) T lets Ss to choose whose story they want to read and analyze. Ss read the text for 3 minutes, and prepare to answer the questions during OCFB: Does the text have clearly identified layout (introduction, argument for, argument against, conclusion)? How many arguments were given in favor of the statements, and how many against? Do you agree with the arguments given?
T conducts feedback on language in the DEC