Aliyya Dwidar Aliyya Dwidar

upper intermediate level


Abc power point presentation/gap fill/handouts

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of the present perfect tense in the context of travel

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a group discussion in the context of travel


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

1. Pose a direct question (related to the context) to the class. “Who likes to travel? Which countries or cities have you visited?” 2. Give an example. “For example, I really like to travel, so I have visited many different places in the world. Recently, I traveled to Canada and I spent a week in Quebec City with some friends.” 3. Let the students discuss. Put the students in pairs and allow them to have a two-minute discussion about the question you posed. “Now tell your partner where you have traveled.” 4. Get some feedback. After the pair discussion, nominate a few students by asking them to report back to the class on what their partner said. “Ok, good job, everyone. Aya, what did Rehab tell you? Where has he traveled?”

Test #1 (8-10 minutes) • To gauge students' prior knowledge of the target language

by giving them a short worksheet or exercise that tests their ability to use the target language- in this case, the present perfect. This could be a fill-in-the-blank exercise, a choose-the-correct-option exercise, a match-the-sentence-halves exercise… anything where each question has a clear correct answer so that we can assess the students’ initial ability to use the grammar accurately.

Study (5-7 minutes) • To clarify areas of the target language where students had difficulty in the first activity stage

use the same sentences in your clarification stage as the ones on the diagnostic test. You won’t need to go over all of them- two or three should be enough. So let’s use the sentences from the diagnostic samples above: They have already taken two vacations this year. She hasn’t been out of the country yet. I have visited all fifty states. The first thing you’ll want to do is get these sentences on the board. For meaning, ask the students concept checking questions to help them understand why the present perfect is used here: “They have already taken two vacations this year. Did the vacations happen sometime in the past? (yes). But do we know exactly when in the past the vacations happened? (no). Do they still have a chance to take more vacations this year? (yes).” Write the parts of speech on the board as you elicit them from the students. To clarify form, elicit the formula for the target language from the students. Again, use those same example sentences to do this. Ask the students what part of speech each word in the grammatical structure is, and as they answer, write this in a different color underneath the example sentence. For pronunciation, model and drill the sentences on the board.

less controlled (8-10 minutes) • Check students' use of the target language again and compare with the first test

Again, this can be a worksheet that requires students to fill in the blank or rewrite sentences in the target language. There should still be one correct answer to each prompt so that you can measure the students’ ability to use the grammar accurately. Like with the diagnostic test, allow the students to do this exercise independently first, so they have a chance to really think through their work. Then have them check their answers in pairs before you go over the answers as a class.

Free practice (3-5 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

activity designed to let the students practice the target language more fluently. This can be a spoken discussion or longer writing task, or something like a role play or communicative game.

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