Meltem Meltem

Modals (Past Deduction)
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn about the modals of past deduction through a guided discovery based on a reading about the mystery of Stonehenge. The lesson starts with guesses about Stonehenge. This is followed by a reading text where students check their guesses. Then they will check the meaning of modal of deduction via the questions provided and formulate the rule for modals of past deduction. Finally, there is a controlled practice exercise on another mystery called the Nazca lines and free practice over a discussion on Gobeklitepe (another mystery from their own country).


Abc Mysterious of the ancient world ppt
Abc Form of the target grammar handout
Abc Gap-fill handout (controlled practice)
Abc The Mystery of the Stonehenge
Abc Mysterious of the ancient world ppt

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of Modals (Past Deduction) in the context of mystery

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide deduction in the context of the Stonehenge
  • To provide accuracy speaking practice in a conversation in the context of Gobeklitepe


Warmer/Lead-in (3 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Show picture of Stonehenge. Ask if anyone knows there. Share information with class.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Instruct students to read the text and the questions and answer in pairs. The answers of the questions would be examples of the target grammar.

Highlighting (5-8 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

Check answers – nominate – check across class. Board 7 sentences that answer questions with modal verbs.

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

Ask questions: “How certain are the scientists?” to develop understanding of meaning. Board paraphrases: “could have” = “it’s possible” “must have” = “almost certain” etc. Repeat for other sections. Students look at the boarded sentences, analyse structures and complete substitution table on handout: Board formula: modal + perfect infinitive (have + past part.) Focus on pronunciation, practice pronunciation of the sentences on board to practice target grammar sentences. While students read, check pronunciation for sentences on board: /mʌstəv/ /ka:ntəv/ /meɪəv/ /kʊdəv/ /maɪtəv/ /ʃəd hæv/ /ˈʃʊdnt hæv/

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

Students complete the paragraph about the Nazca lines on handout using past modals. Check answers across class.

Free Practice (15-25 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

Students speculate about Gobeklitepe in pairs with the given pictures. Share ideas in open class. Monitor, board corrections if necessary (error correction). *Note: This stage is planned for the next hour but if everything goes well, we’ll have an introduction to the free practice at the end of the first hour.

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