Modals (Past Deduction)
To provide clarification and practice of Modals (Past Deduction) in the context of mystery
To provide deduction in the context of the Stonehenge
To provide accuracy speaking practice in a conversation in the context of Gobeklitepe
Procedure (47-63 minutes)
Show picture of Stonehenge. Ask if anyone knows there. Share information with class.
Instruct students to read the text and the questions and answer in pairs. The answers of the questions would be examples of the target grammar.
Check answers – nominate – check across class. Board 7 sentences that answer questions with modal verbs.
Ask questions: “How certain are the scientists?” to develop understanding of meaning. Board paraphrases: “could have” = “it’s possible” “must have” = “almost certain” etc. Repeat for other sections. Students look at the boarded sentences, analyse structures and complete substitution table on handout: Board formula: modal + perfect infinitive (have + past part.) Focus on pronunciation, practice pronunciation of the sentences on board to practice target grammar sentences. While students read, check pronunciation for sentences on board: /mʌstəv/ /ka:ntəv/ /meɪəv/ /kʊdəv/ /maɪtəv/ /ʃəd hæv/ /ˈʃʊdnt hæv/
Students complete the paragraph about the Nazca lines on handout using past modals. Check answers across class.
Students speculate about Gobeklitepe in pairs with the given pictures. Share ideas in open class. Monitor, board corrections if necessary (error correction). *Note: This stage is planned for the next hour but if everything goes well, we’ll have an introduction to the free practice at the end of the first hour.