Alexa Alexa

Perfect models
B1+ level


In this lesson students learn about the perfect modals through guided discovery based on expressing regrets about past actions.


Abc Board
Abc Student's book, page 66
Abc Student's book, page 67

Main Aims

  • To provide practice of perfect modals in the context of expressing regrets about past actions

Subsidiary Aims

  • To express feelings and beliefs about past actions and events.


Warmer/Lead-in (15-20 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Direct attention to the chart and have students read the first explanation. Point out how a perfect modal is formed. Write on the board "perfect modal= modal + have + past participle". Have students read the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth explanation and study the examples. Explain the situations to clarify meaning when needed. To check comprehension call out students to form their own examples. Point out how the negative is formed and have students practice.

Exposure (10-15 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Grammar Practice A. Have students choose the modal that logically completes each statement. To model the activity, complete the first item with the class. Give them 10 minutes to finish, then verify the answers with the class. Point out what each sentence expresses.

Highlighting (15-20 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

Pair Work. Have students provide three possible reasons for each statement, using may / might have, must have, and could have. To focus students' attention, have them read and study the example and the three possible reasons, identifying the feelings and beliefs. Walk around the classroom and provide help as needed. Finally ask volunteers to share their answers to each situations.

Clarification (10-15 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

Have students notice the reduction of have in perfect modals by reading and listening to the audio, then have them repeat the phrases. Then have students take turns to read the sentences from Exercise A, using correct reduction of have. Before students practice, read first item aloud and have students repeat chorally after you.

Controlled Practice (10-15 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

Have students read and listen to a conversation between two people discussing a regret about the past, then have them practice the Conversation Model with a partner.

Semi-Controlled Practice (10-15 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

Have students write about some regrets they have about past actions. Have them fill the notepadding with regrets and how might things be different. Encourage students to use different perfect modals and to write three or four regrets, either real or imaginary. Walk around and provide help as needed.

Free Practice (10-20 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

In pairs, have students personalize the conversation model by discussing their regrets ans speculating on how things might have been different. Tell students to use the information they wrote on their notepad and perfect modals. Encourage students to extend the conversation by using the recycled language.

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