To provide practice of perfect modals in the context of expressing regrets about past actions
To express feelings and beliefs about past actions and events.
Procedure (80-120 minutes)
Direct attention to the chart and have students read the first explanation. Point out how a perfect modal is formed. Write on the board "perfect modal= modal + have + past participle". Have students read the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth explanation and study the examples. Explain the situations to clarify meaning when needed. To check comprehension call out students to form their own examples. Point out how the negative is formed and have students practice.
Grammar Practice A. Have students choose the modal that logically completes each statement. To model the activity, complete the first item with the class. Give them 10 minutes to finish, then verify the answers with the class. Point out what each sentence expresses.
Pair Work. Have students provide three possible reasons for each statement, using may / might have, must have, and could have. To focus students' attention, have them read and study the example and the three possible reasons, identifying the feelings and beliefs. Walk around the classroom and provide help as needed. Finally ask volunteers to share their answers to each situations.
Have students notice the reduction of have in perfect modals by reading and listening to the audio, then have them repeat the phrases. Then have students take turns to read the sentences from Exercise A, using correct reduction of have. Before students practice, read first item aloud and have students repeat chorally after you.
Have students read and listen to a conversation between two people discussing a regret about the past, then have them practice the Conversation Model with a partner.
Have students write about some regrets they have about past actions. Have them fill the notepadding with regrets and how might things be different. Encourage students to use different perfect modals and to write three or four regrets, either real or imaginary. Walk around and provide help as needed.
In pairs, have students personalize the conversation model by discussing their regrets ans speculating on how things might have been different. Tell students to use the information they wrote on their notepad and perfect modals. Encourage students to extend the conversation by using the recycled language.