Basim Basim

Grammar: Obligation and Permission (Language Focus)
Intermediate level


In this lesson sts learn about obligation and permission words such as have to , must, can ... . Sts work in pairs filling in the blanks with these expressions. Finally, they write rules about a certain place in mind and their partners guess the places/


Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of obligation and permission phrases in the context of instructional signs.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide listening to modal verbs and sts practice repeating them.
  • To provide opportunity for writing their own rules using expressions of obligation and permission.


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T talks about a friend who made an accident because he didn't stop when the traffic sign is red. T asks questions and elicit the situation.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Sts read varied signs from different places and T asks them questions to elicit grammar points of obligation and permission.

Highlighting (2-4 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

T draws attention to the target language of obligation and highlights the use of each expressions and its degree.

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

PHONOLOGY: Problem: Sts may pronounce the first 't' in 'mustn't' Solution: T says that it is silent. MEANING : Problem 1: Sts may think that 'can' indicates ability. Solution: T says that it is about permission. Problem 2: Sts may not know the degree of prohibition and. Solution 2: T explains that on the board. Have to / don't have to: strong obligation (possibly from outside) Children have to go to school. (sometimes 'have got to') Must / mustn't: strong obligation (possibly based on the speaker's opinion) Should / shouldn't: mild obligation or advice FORM Problem: Sts may write the negative for 'have to' as 'haven't to' and are 'allowed to' as 'are allowed not to' Solution: T writes some sentences on the board and explains where 'not' is put.

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

Sts complete sentences with the appropriate verbs working in pairs.

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

T asks sts to think of a certain place the visited and what signs they read.

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

Sts work working individually writing sentences or a list of rules for a place they visited. Then, his partner guesses the place.

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