mahsa mahsa

modals of deduction
Intermediate level


in this lesson Ss are taught the modals of deduction to claim their hypotheses about different situations.


Abc short describtion
Abc power point
Abc sentences from the course book
Abc personal photos

Main Aims

  • by the end of this lesson learners are better able to state their hypotheses

Subsidiary Aims

  • this lesson can support Ss to better develop their productive skills.


Warmer/Lead-in (2-3 minutes) • to engage Ss with the TL, and set an appropriate context for them

- T shows Ss some photos of her childhood, and Ss are asked to make a guess about the relationship between the people in the photos.

Exposure (3-4 minutes) • to provide the Ss a model of TL related to the context

- Ss are given some other photos to take a look at them. - Ss are asked to work with pairs and guess the story behind them.

Highlighting (4-5 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

- some sentences were stuck to the walls and Ss are asked to go through the class and pick the sentences they think are better match to the pictures. - Ss are asked to share their ideas to each other. - Ss are given a feed back for this part

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

-Ss are shown a picture of rich person, and T asks some question about him. * what is your opinion about him? - T demonstrates a sample sentence: * he must be rich. -T asks some CCQs to clarify the meaning of must * are you totally sure that he is rich? (Y) * is he a poor man? (N) * does he have lots of money? (Y) - T demonstrates the negative form of the sentence and highlight the pronunciation. - T shows another way of stating impossibilities: * he can't be a poor person. -T asks some CCQs: * is it possible that he be poor? (N) *how much are you sure about it? 90% *is it your guess? (Y) -T demonstrates another sentence about the picture: *he can\could be a business man. - T asks some CCQs *are you totally sure about it? (N) * is any any possibility that he be a manager? (Y) * are we talking about facts? (N) -T asks Ss to change the statement into question form. -T demonstrates the question form of the sentence. -T asks Ss for other possibilities, and asks Ss to help her complete the sentence. - T asks just one CCQ: * are you totally sure about it? (N)

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • to grant students opportunity to practice the TL in a controlled way

- Ss are given some sentences and a picture on the board, they have to match the first sentences to the other. - T gives them feed back

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • to grant Ss the opportunity to use the TL in their real lifes

- Ss are asked to show each other the picture of their relatives and families, and make some deduction about them.

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