Atefeh Atefeh

grammar: modal verbs of obligation:must,have to, should
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn about modals of obligation (must,have to,should) through Present-practice-production in the context of rules and freedom. The lesson starts with a video in a cinema to set the context for rules. The teacher will elicit answers from students about what rules the cinema has. Then the teacher get the students a passage about "mobile phone etiquette and ask them to attend to the highlighted phrases. Next,the teacher ask them some question about the passage. Then students take a test to check their knowledge of the TL. This is followed by a teaching stage where ss teach each other the grammar rules and their different forms(positive,negative and question) is pairs and groups, and then teacher drills for pronunciation and stress of the target language. Next the students take a second test electronically. During free practice, students will discuss important rules in their own country. Lastly, there will feedback and delayed error correction, if necessary.


Abc hand out
Abc whiteboard
Abc slide 1
Abc task

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of modal verbs of obligation:must,have to, should in the context of a text

Subsidiary Aims

  • By the end of this lesson, students will have learnt the modals of obligation and how to use them in different situation


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T tells ss: I have a video for you to watch. T plays video: Mr. Bean in the Cinema to set context for obligation. T elicits from students: Where was Mr. Bean? ( in the cinema) . What was he trying to do? (smoke, drink, talk on his mobile).. Was it against the rules for him do these things? (Yes ) What do the rules let him do? (buy drinks and popcorn ) T asks ss to discuss in small groups: What are some other rules you would expect to find in the cinema? T nominates a few ss to share answers from their group.

exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

-ask SS to read a passage about " Mobile phone etiquette" and pay attention to the highlighted phrases. Then ask them questions about the passage. What was it about? about mobile phone etiquette. Do you agree with what he said? yes ask them to match the highlighted phrases to their meanings.monitor SS to check their answers in pairs and check if they have difficult in understanding. -feedback

Teach (5-10 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

Write the phrases on the board and elicit their rules . you should change it. you must not use your phone. you don't have to shout. you have to keep your phone on. you must take a call. Then clarify their meaning and distinct them from each other. should (weak)= used to show what is right, appropriate, etc., especially when criticizing somebody’s actions must (strong) = We use “must” to talk about obligations. Often, when we use “must”, the authority for the obligation comes from the person who is speaking have to (rules) = We can also use “have to” to talk about rules and regulations. The authority for the obligation doesn’t come from the person who is speaking. Perhaps the rule is a general law or obligation. Positive: Subject + Should/must/ have to + V + Object. Negative: 1. Subject + Should/must + not + V + Object. 2. Subject + don’t/does not+ have to + V + Object Question: 1. Should/must+ Subject + V + Object? 2. Do/Does + Subject+ have to + Object call them to the board and give them one word to go to their rigth place as a part of a sentence and play a game to understand the rules better. S1= clean S2 = your S3= room S4= should S5= You positive sentence: 5 4 1 2 3 negative sentence : 5 4 Not 1 2 3 ( me play as NOT) question: 4 5 1 2 3 ? ( me play as ?)

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

ask SS to move to exercise one - emphasis that SS have to complete the sentences to make them means. -SS work in pairs and write their answers. -give SS the feedback . If there is enough time, T will ask SS to answer exercise 2 or a part of it, in pairs.

Controlled Practice (3-5 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

give the students some words and ask them to make them in pairs into meaningful sentences. after that check their answers with the keys on the slide. Visitors must not take photographs   You should see a doctor at once   You should take an umbrella and put on a raincoat   You must not talk to your phone in a quiet zone.

Free Practice (3-5 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

ask SS to choose any three places that come to their minds and make a list of the most important rules for each place. - ask Ss to work in groups, or pairs, read the rules to their groups but without saying the place. others should guess the place. - giving feedback e.g. cinema: You don't have to smoke there.

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