Relative Cluases
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students will learn about defining and non-defining relative clauses following the shape of Test-Teach-Test. They will learn about the affirmative form and differences between both clauses only. The context of the lesson is " I need a hero" which is a reading lesson. The sub-aim is speaking. Students will be practicing the target language through an oral freer practice in a communicative way.


No materials added to this plan yet.

Main Aims

  • Grammar: To develop Ss knowledge of using "relative clauses" in the affirmative form and be able to differentiate between defining and non-defining ones.

Subsidiary Aims

  • Speaking: To provide Ss freer oral practice and use the TL productively


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T Greets SS, Now look at this sentence from the text you’ve just read: Rosario is the town in Argentina where Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara was born. T asks SS to divide the sentence into two clauses just to introduce them to the word ‘clause' in general as the main clause and relative clause

Test #1 (8-10 minutes) • To gauge students' prior knowledge of the target language

T asks SS to get up and decide what type of relative clauses and choose a side to stand at (Right for defining, left for non-defining, and centre for not sure). T projects different sentences and starts testing them. T takes notes of those that are not sure/incorrect "If most of the students know the answers, I move to another test. However, if the majority is wrong, I stop there and start teaching the differences."

Teach (15-20 minutes) • To clarify areas of the target language where students had difficulty in the first test stage

-Part 1: T displays a set of sentences on the WB that have defining relative clauses. T elicits the meaning using CCQs: s1: what are we talking about? A woman. What relative pronoun did we use? Who/that. So who and that are used for... (elicit from Ss). The same questions for the rest of the sentences and elicit from SS (Where is for a place, which and that are for things, whose is for of who or of which. For sentence 5: T asks: Why do you think I put (who / that) between two brackets? Do you think we can omit/delete them? Will the sentence have the same meaning if we do so? Now look at sentence 1 and try to compare between 1 and 5? What do you think the difference is? In s1 what is the subject of the verb works? (Julia). What is the subject of the verb met in sentence s 5? 2 subjects (He and I). So ....(elicit from SS) we can omit them in sentence 5 when the subject in the main clause and the relative clause have a different subject. T asks Ss: what do these clauses tell us/give us? (elicit from SS: important information about a person, a place, or thing) Does the sentence make sense without this clause? (No) So we call these clauses defining clauses (elicit). T drills the pronunciation Part 2: T displays a set of sentences on the WB that have non-defining relative clauses. T asks to elicit: What relative pronouns do we use here? (the same ones). What is the difference here? (the commas). Do you think we can leave these clauses out without affecting the sentence meaning? (Yes). What do these clauses tell us/ give us? (extra, non- essential information). But here, can we leave out the relative pronoun, why? (No, because it breaks down the meaning of the sentence? Finally, we call these non-defining relative clauses.

Test #2 (8-10 minutes) • Check students' use of the target language again and compare with the first test

T hands out a practice for SS in which they have to add commas where necessary or tick it if it is correct. SS work in pairs then check their answers. T monitors and gives feedback

Free practice (13-15 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

T gives Ss test no.2. In this test, T divides SS into 2 groups (A & B). Ss have to complete questions to describe the bold word (See HO 6). T monitors closely and corrects where and when applicable. Each group asks the full question and the other group answers in full form, then vice versa. SS check their answers. T gives feedback about SS errors if any.

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