tugba sisman tugba sisman

have to lesson
Pre-intermediate level


In this lesson, students are going to learn "have to" and "had to" with their negative forms through a listening and guided discovery. The lesson will start with a picture matching activity to introduce/ remind some jobs some of which they will use later to match with these jobs' responsibilities in "have to" sentences. Later, they will listen to the text and check their matching. Then students will discover the meaning and the form through a guided discovery worksheet in which there is a short interview with a student about student life. Upon realizing the form, they will study in pairs to create the rule on the board by using cards that the teacher gives and then study pronunciation of the structure. Finally, they will do a controlled practice and a freer activity to produce the form.


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Main Aims

  • To provide students with clarification / review and practice of positive and negative "have to" and "had to" in the context of job responsibilities

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide students with practice in listening and speaking


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

After greeting and asking how they are, to set the context of jobs, I will ask "do you think I love my job?" and get some answers. I will say " I will give a worksheet and you will try to match the jobs with the pictures." and give the worksheet. Early finishers will compare their matchings. When everybody finishes I'll get their answers.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

T: "Three of the jobs in the worksheet are on the book. Can you see their photos? Look ate the 3 photos and tell me what do Rick, Bernie and Lorna do?" and students give answers. T: "Now, let's match these people with sentences in exercise 3a" When they finish, I will play the audio and make them check their matching.

Highlighting & clarification (2-4 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

"We have talked about different jobs. But what about you? What is your job? Is being a student a job? Do students have some responsibilities that they have to do?" asks the teacher both to prepare them for the worksheet and to use the TL in a sentence again. After getting some answers from students, the teacher gives the instruction and then the worksheet. T: "Let's read questions under the interview. You have 1 minute to read" Students read CCQs and then the teacher elicits the meaning of "necessary" which students see in CCQs. T: " please tell me, if something necessary, is it very important, do I need to do it or may I not do it?" When I am sure they get the meaning of "necessary" , I will let them read the interview in the worksheet and answer the CCQs alone and then compare. T: "Now you can read the interview with the student about student life and try to answer the questions you have read." Students read, answer and compare their answers. Teacher gets their answers, asks how they decide that answer and show the answers on the ppt. T: "This time, we will look at the 4 sentences in the worksheet and fill in the gaps with a bold word from the interview" Students fill in the gaps and compare their answers. The teacher gets their answers and write on the board. To show the form, the teacher gives pairs cards having "subject + have to + verb" / "Subject + has to + verb" / "Subject + don't have to + verb" / "Subect + doesn't have to + verb" / "Subject + had to+ verb" / Subject + didn't have to + verb". But these rules are cut so student pairs need to put them in the order to create the rule. When they finish, they stick them on the board in the correct place that the teacher draws. Before they start, the teacher models the activity by ordering one rule with the help of the students and stick it in the right place. Every pair sticks the rule and students look at all the rules created by different pairs and check them alltogether. As an extra note, the teacher writes "I have to have a diploma to start my job" and elicits the difference between two have in the sentence. To study pronunciation, the teacher says "we will listen to some sentences, please pay attention to the pronunciation of 'have to'" Students listen and the teacher drills the pronunciation of the TL first,then the whole sentence.The teacher highlights the pronunciation difference of "have to" and "have" on the sentence she has written on the board before.

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To enable students practice the TL and prepare them for a freer practice

T: "And now, it is time to practice. You will read about Bernie's job (Remember? he is the referee in the picture) and fill in the blanks with 'have to', 'has to', 'had to', 'don't have to', or 'didn't have to'. There may be some words that you don't know but you don't need to know all the words. You can still do the exercise. Let's look at page 23, exercise 7 and do it in pairs." Students do the exercise, compare their answers with other pairs and then the teacher gets the answers and write them on the board.

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

T: "Now you will work in pairs. Everybody will choose a job but won't say it to anybody. You will tell what things that job has to do and your partner will try to guess what job it is. You can choose a job that are in the first worksheet I give. For example, I can say that 'I have to get up early, I have to know medicines, I have to know human body, I have to know illnesses' and my partner guesses this job. What is the job?" Students do the activity and the teacher monitors. She takes notes of the mistakes and gives feedback in the end.

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