A1 (Elementary) level
Grammar - comparative adjectives. The following aspects of comparatives and superlatives are introduced: --- the use of -er/-est with short adjectives, such as cheap, cheaper, cheapest. --- the use of -ier/-iest with adjectives that end in -y, such as noisy, noisier, noisiest. --- the use of more/most with longer adjectives, such as more expensive, most expensive. --- irregular adjectives such as good, better, best. The presentation of these is staged. In the first presentation, pairs of opposite adjectives are revisedlintroduced and this leads to the introduction of comparative forms.
Vocabulary and pronunciation Pairs of opposite adjectives are introduced as part of the presentation of comparative adjectives. In the vocabulary section, town and country words are introduced and practised in contexts which provide an opportunity to review comparatives and superlatives. There is further practice in recognizing phonetic script.
Procedure (39-49 minutes)
The Starter introduces the topic of city life and gets Ss thinking about cities they know. Ss are not asked to generate comparative forms at this stage - there will be plenty of opportunities to practise these in the activities that follow.
1. T 9.1 Focus attention on the prompts. Briefly review North, South, East, and West by drawing a Siple compass on the board. Eşict more practice locations, e.g. South West by asking about İstanbul. Check pronunciation of 'mountains' (WCD). Give Ss time to think of a town or city in Turkey and describe it's location and ask the rest of the class to guess the name of each city. 2. Play the recording and elicit the name of each city. 1st - London 2nd- Paris
Focus attention the photos and check pronınciation of 'Gherkin' /ˈgɜːkɪn/ And 'Eiffel Tower' /ˈaɪf(ə)l ˈtaʊə/. Ask Ss what they know about London and Paris. Play recording and get Ss to follow their text. focus attention on comparative forms which are in Bold. Some of the comparative forms were given in exercise 1 and the Grammar Spot. Monitor and help as necessary. Then check the answers with the whole class. Point out that adjectives ending in -e, add just -r, e.g. nice - nicer. Doubling (more than twice) of the consonant, more + adjective, and irregular. Hot - Hotter = H - O - double T - E - R Put Ss in pairs to test each other. Monitor and check. Feedback in any form, spelling, or pronunciation errors with the whole class (WCD) Answers: tall-taller, Expensive-more expensive, hot-hotter, cheap-cheaper, nice-nicer, wet-wetter, warm-warmer, cold-colder, polite-more polite, beautiful-more beautiful, bad-worse, good-better.
Focus attention on the photos and ask students to identify which show Paris and which London. Focus attention on the example. Check which other adjectives in exercise 2 could be used to describe the Eiffel Tower and the Gherkin (beautiful) and elicit a comparison, e.g. I think the Eiffel Tower is more beautiful than the Gherkin. With weaker students, elicit the adjectives they can use in the rest of the sentences (Metro/Underground - expensive, weather - hot/ wet, buildings - beautiful, people - nice/polite). Put students in pairs to compare their ideas. Monitor and help as necessary. Check for accurate formation of comparatives and a natural delivery in the pronunciation. Correct any errors with the class, highlighting the use of /'d/ on the unstressed syllables if necessary. T 9.3 Tell Ss they are going to hear six sentences, using the same prompts as in exercise 3. Play the recording and let students compare the sentences with their own versions. (If students query the height of the Eiffel Tower and the Gherkin, confirm that the Eiffel Tower is 300m and the Gherkin is just 180m!) Refer students to T 9.3 on SB p128. Get them to practice the sentences. Monitor and check pronunciation. Focus particularly on the /ə/ sounds. If students have problems, drill the sentences from the recording or model them yourself. If necessary, break up the sentences into sections, isolating the comparative forms + than. Try to get a natural 'flow' in the repetition of the sentences. Tapescript 1 The Eiffel Tower is taller than the Gherkin. 2 The Underground's more expensive than the Metro. 3 Paris is warmer than London. 4 Paris is wetter than London. 5 I think the buildings in Paris are more beautiful. 6 I think the people in London are nicer.
T 9.4 Focus attention on the photo of Rob. Ask What nationality is he? (English) Where does he live? (Paris). Pre-teach/check transport, architecture, Londoner, Parisian, and have a good time. Focus attention on the examples. If students query the spelling of easier, point out that adjectives ending in -y form the comparative with -ier, e.g. noisy - noisier. Give students time to read the gapped sentences. Explain that the recording is in the form of a short monologue but students should be able to pick out the keywords to complete the sentences. Play the recording and get students to complete Rob's opinions. Give them time to check their answers in pairs. Play the recording again if necessary and let students check/complete their answers. Check the answers with the class. Answers 1 The Metro is cheaper and easier to use than the Underground. 2 Paris is certainly hotter than London. 3 Paris, in fact, is wetter than London. 4 The architecture in Paris is more beautiful, but the buildings in London are more interesting. 5 Ufe is faster in London. 6 Londoners are generally more polite than Parisians. 7 People in London work harder, and they earn more. 8 In Paris, having a good time is more important. Tape Script Well, I like both London and Paris. But they are very different cities. Take transport for example. The Metro is cheaper and easier to use than the Underground. And the weather ... well, Paris is certainly hotter than London. And Paris in fact is wetter than London, but in London there are more wet days. What about the bUildings? Well, ... people say that the architecture in Paris is more beautiful, but the buildings in London are more interesting. And living in the two cities? Well ... life is faster in London. And the people? ... Mmm, Londoners are generally more polite than Parisians. People in London work harder, and they earn more. In Paris, haVing a good time is more important.
Give Ss hand-outs New Headway Elementary WB- Page 55 There are controlled, and semi-controlled practices on the paper.