Vrendale Lomerez Vrendale Lomerez

Copy of Grammar Lesson: Obligation and Permission in the Present
Intermediate: B1/B2 level


In this lesson, students will learn about the positive and negative forms modals of obligation and permission through guided discovery in the context of rules and freedom. The lesson starts with a video in a cinema to set the context for rules. The teacher will elicit answers from students about what rules the cinema has. Then the teacher will guide the students through the meaning, function, and form of the target language with a handout. This is followed by pronunciation and stress drilling for fluency and accuracy of the target language. Next the students will complete controlled and semi controlled activities in pair work and small groups to prepare for free. practice. During free practice, students will discuss important rules in their own country. Lastly, there will feedback and delayed error correction, if necessary.


Main Aims

  • To provide practice and clarification of obligations and permission in the present in the context of rules and freedom

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency and accuracy speaking practice in stating important rules in the context of for different places.
  • To provide practice and clarification of modal verbs in the context of rules and freedom


Warmer/Lead-in (4-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T tells ss: I have a video for you to watch. T plays video: Mr. Bean in the Cinema to set context for obligation and permission. T elicits from students: Where was Mr. Bean? in the cinema What was he trying to do? smoke, drink, talk on his mobile... Was it against the rules for him do these things? Yes What do the rules let him do? buy drinks and popcorn

Meaning (Guided Discovery) (6-7 minutes) • To clarify the meaning the meaning and the use of the target language

T chest GD HO and instructs ss to fold it. Look at sentences and then answer the questions alone. (must/have to/can, mustn't/don't have to/can't) Peer Check. Answer Key

Function and Form (Guided Discovery) (3-4 minutes) • To clarify form of the target language

Function T instructs ss to unfold HO and complete the rules by circling the correct word in bold. Peer Check OCFB Form: T instructs students to complete the pattern with the missing words. Peer Check Answer Key

Pronunciation (3-4 minutes) • To clarify pronunciation and stress of target language

T drills pronunciation and elicit stress. must (unstressed) /məst/ or /mʌst/ mUstn't hAve to /ˈhæv tə/ don't hAve to can (unstressed) /kən/ or /kæn/ can't (unstressed) /kɑːnt/ Drills sample sentences (back drill) You have to stop at a red light. I mustn't stay up late because I'll be sleepy tomorrow.

Controlled Practice (7-8 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

T gives students pics of different signs and instructs ss to look at the signs. "Think about which places would you see them? What do they mean?" T chests HO and tells students to look at the signs and read the sentences. Decide which sentences are true and which are false. Make the false sentences true. Peer Check OCFB

Semi-Controlled Practice (7-8 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

T chests handout and instructs: Ss to complete handout (gap fill) with a partner to make sentences true for their country. Switch partners and compare. OCFB (error correction is necessary)

Free Practice (7-8 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

T tells ss: Individually: Choose 2 of the places from earlier and make a list of 2 of the most important rules for each place. In small groups, Read your rules to your group, but don't say the place. Group members will guess. T demos: A. You have to get there two hours in advance B. You're in a airport! T nominates ss to share their rules with the class. (spot error correct if needed)

Feedback and Delayed Error Correction (4-5 minutes) • To provide feedback on student's production and use of language

Different ways to show errors depending on error: *Write problem sentence on board and tell students there is an error. *Write the problem sentence on the board for discussion. *Use fingers for correction in pronunciation of words and sentences (i.e. have to, mustn't) *Ss repeat sentence while indicating w/fingers words said & indicate the problem word when it's said... *Repeat sentence up to error... *Ask questions (Is this a law or rule? Does the speaker or someone else think it's necessary? etc...)

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