kamiar purabbas kamiar purabbas

Perfect Modals
Intermediate (B1) level


In this lesson the concept of perfect modals will be introduced.Students will improve their mastery over the presented structure by different speaking activities.


Abc HO1
Abc HO2
Abc HO3

Main Aims

  • To provide accuracy and fluency speaking practice in a conversation in the context of speculations in the past

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of Perfect modals in the context of past events and news headlines


Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

The teacher starts the class with a very short story about talking about something mysterious.Following the story the teacher will ask the learners "What do you think happened to....?The teacher will give students one minute to think about possible answers and then will elicit some their answers.

Creating the context and introducing the form (5-7 minutes) • To provide the structure students are going to learn

Having elicited some possible answers the teacher will use their answers to produce some sentences using the target language.By encouraging the students for more answers,the teacher will repeat the target structure a few more times.Then, the teacher using the finger- visualization technique will try to make the form more clear to the students

Grammar Presentation (5-8 minutes) • To provide meaning,form and pronunciation of the new structure

The teacher will put one of the sentences from the students on the board. Explaining the form and the meaning using CCQs. S/he will also point out that the modal and have are linked.The first sentence will be "must have pp." ,the second one will be "might/may/could have pp." and the last one will be "can't/couldn't have pp.".At the end the teacher will show their degree of certainty by putting them in a table.

Controlled Practice (6-8 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

The teacher will explain that sentences 1-6 on the hand-outs refer to one of the newspaper headlines. The teacher will distribute the papers and the students in pairs will try to find the answer. After providing the correct answers students will do exercise 2,prior to the exercise the teacher will remind the students to select the suitable modal according to the meaning conveyed in the sentence.

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

After checking the answers for exercise 2,and providing the instructions for exercise 3,the students will continue to make assumptions about the other news headlines.Monitoring and taking notes from possible mistakes is extremely important at this stage.The teacher should also encourage different structures rather than just one modal.The feedback will be by asking each pair to explain their deductions with other students.

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

The speaking activity will be done in three steps: 1.the teacher will put the students in to two groups.The instructions will be given to the groups with some demonstrations. 2.The teacher will give the hand-outs to the groups and monitor the groups closely.so that the activity can achieve its goal. 3.The same process will be repeated with the other part of the hand-outs.

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