Katie Katie

Copy of Modals of Obligation
Intermediate level


In this lessons, students will have opportunities to notice and practice using modals of obligation through a variety of exercises.


Abc Warning Signs
Abc Whiteboard
Abc Vestel Board
Abc Place Game
Abc Warning Signs

Main Aims

  • Students will have exposure to and several chances to practice modals of obligation (can, must, should, be allowed, have to, ought, + negative)

Subsidiary Aims

  • Students will have 2 chances to practice speaking about rules and describing places creatively.


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T will write a question on the board as the students return from break. After roll call, Ss will discuss the question for a minute or two. T will then randomly check some Ss' answers.

Exposure (10-12 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Ss will watch a video about modals of obligation on Learn English Teens in which they will notice several uses of the target language in authentic situation. They will then complete exercises on an accompanying worksheet. Ss will compare answers before checking an answer key. If time allows, T will elicit answers

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

Ss will do a running dictation of a modals of obligation worksheet. In small groups, the Ss will write down the answers from the sentences in the hallway by sending runners out to memorize sentences. -- If time is a problem or if Ss seem to be doing very well with material, this activity will be changed or abandoned --

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-9 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

In small groups, Ss will look at the warning signs and try to make sentences using modals of obligations based on them. T will monitor and spot check.

Free Practice (9-11 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

Ss in groups of ~4 will play the Place Game to practice modals of obligations. S 1 will draw a card and describe to the others the rules/obligations of the place and the others will try to guess the place. Whoever guesses correctly will get the card which counts as 1 point. The game will continue until all the cards are used or time is up.

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