meral meral

Grammar lesson
elementary level


In this lesson, SS will learn the usage of "can/can’t for the present time and could/couldn’t for the past time" based on a reading text about changing technology. After checking present and past time concepts with lead-in very briefly, SS will be engaged in receptive skill by reading for gist and specific information. By checking the sample sentences of "can/can’t and could/couldn’t" in the reading text, SS will study on the structure. Following that, they will practice the form in a semi-controlled exercise, check the pronunciation of the forms and make a listening exercise to practise. If T observes any problems after these activities, s/he will give another semi-controlled activity and make further explanations by using it. If that does not happen, s/he will give it as an extra material. SS will finish the course with productive skill by making interview about new and old mobile phones.


Abc Listening exercise
Abc Powerpoint slides
Abc Pictures from present popular culture and from 1970s' popular culture and subcultures
Abc Flachcards
Abc Reading Passage titled as "Our First Colour" on pg 50
Abc Flachcards

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of can/can't, could/couldn't in the context of technology

Subsidiary Aims

  • reading for detailed information
  • developing oral fluency
  • listening for spesific information
  • speaking for accuracy
  • Reading for gist


Warmer/Lead-in (3-4 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

- Stick a timeline paper on students' desk. -Have projector ready to Show pictures -Show the pictures of today, ask their ideas about smart TV and smart car -Show the pictures of 1970s, ask their ideas about TV in one of the pictures What do you think about this TV? What about this? Is this a car? What kind of car is it? What do you think about this TV? Do you want this in your houses?

Preparation for the topic of the reading text (4-5 minutes) • To make a smooth transition from lead-in to reading for gist

-Ask SS read the title and look at the Picture -Ask them if the text is about the modern TV or an old TV. -Ask them to read the introduction of the reading and to tell me the writer of it - Ask them to read the text in 3 minutes and tell me how TV was different in 1970s. Can you read the title, please? What is this reading about? Is it an about an old TV or a modern TV? Now, please read the introduction here (demonstrating). What is the writer's name? Now, read the whole text in 3 minutes and tell me how TV was different in 1970s.

Understanding the text (5-7 minutes) • Reading for spesific information

-Ask students to read the text and answer the questions in exercise B. -Ask them to underline the information in the text which is related with their answer. Tell them they have 10 minutes to complete. Now, please read the text and answer these (demonstrating) questions. When you find the answer here (demonstrating), underline it. You have 10 minutes.

Checking Answers (2-3 minutes) • Checking SS' understanding the text

Ask SS to check their answers with their pair. After a minute, put the answer key after they check. Time is up. Turn to your partner and check your answers, please. And here is the key. Check it together.

Language Analysis (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the task language

Ask students to underline the sentences with can/can't and could/couldn't. Write them on board. Ask them which one used for present and for past activities. Ask them to choose one positive and negative sentence with can/can't and write them in the part organised for them. Ask them to choose one positive and negative sentence could/ couldn't and write them in the part organised for them. Tell them to read the sentence in the first table on the page. Ask them what word is coming after these modals. Tell them we call it as infinitive verb. Ask them to read other sample sentences in the table. Write the first sentence on the board. Tell them "she" is subject. Add that all the subjects take can/can't. There is no change. Underline "she" and wrie "S" below the Word. Underline "use" and write "infinitive" below it. Ask SS to writethe formula in the gaps with the correct word by checking the sample sentences. Ask them to check their answers with their partners. Ask them what is left. Ask them how they can make question and tell them write the formula for the question sturcture. Now, as you see there are some can/can't or could'couldn't sentences in the text. Can you underline them, please? So for which one is used for past events? And which one is used for present events? Look at this part now, take a positive sentence with écané and write in here. Do the same for the others. OK, now, can you look at this sentence, please. What is "she" here? This is the verb and we call it infinitive verb, because there is -ing or -es with it. Then, can you fill in this blanks now? Ok, do the same for the others. Now, check your answers with your pairs. But what about the question? How do you make questions? Then fill in its formula now. I will check it.

Pronunciation (3-4 minutes) • Developing oral fluency

Ask them how they read can/can't and could/couldn't. Tell them "can" is sometimes strong and sometimes weak. Show the first slide. Tell them if it is strong, it is read as /kæn/ in phonetic alphabet and if it is weak, it is read as /kən/ . Use body language and practise pronunciation together. Show smiling face card for strong and ask them to read. Show unhappy card for weak and ask them to read. Ask them to practise it with their pairs.

Listening (3-5 minutes) • Listening for spesific info and practising pronunciation

Ask them to read the whole passage with the blanks in 30 seconds. Ask them to check the dates in the text. Ask them to listen and fill in the gaps in the listening. When the track finished, ask them to listen and check their answers. When finished, leave the key on their desk. Now, have a look at this passage in 30 seconds and read it. Are you going to write anything? Please check the dates/time in the first, second and third paragraph. OK, please listen and fill in the blanks with can/could or couldn't. Listen again and check your answers.

Interview (8-10 minutes) • To provide an opportunity to practice target productive skills

-Tell the students they are going to make a survey about their friends mobile phones in the --past and today. -Ask them to prepare/write their questions first. -Later, tell them to choose 3 friends and ask the questions and write the answers. -Observe the SS and note their mistakes down. When the activitiy finishes, tell them they could stay more. Now it i time for a Interview. You will ask them questions about their mobile phones in the past and at present. Are you going to ask them about their computers? First prepare your questions here and use this Word. Later start asking and write your friends answer. OK, time is up, but if you want you can stay. You could stay yesterday, too. I am joking, have a nice weekend.

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