Ayşegül Toğan Ayşegül Toğan

Upper Intermediate level


In this lesson, students will learn Present Perfect Continuous comparing with Present Perfect Simple through the text used during the previous lesson with the help of some visuals and guided discovery handout. The lesson starts with a brief discussion about ex-classmates. This is followed by the analysis of the model sentences found in the text. Finally there is some controlled (gap-fill exercises) and freer practice (a final speaking activity). It is aimed that Ss will figure out MFP on their own as much as possible.


Abc W/B
Abc Guided Discovery HO
Abc fill-in-the gaps HO
Abc Global Upper Intermediate SsBk

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of present perfect and present perfect continuous in the context of amazing ocean facts

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency and accuracy


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Ask Ss "Do you still see your high school friends?" "When was the last time you saw them?" Tell them discuss these questions in pairs. Nominate Ss to get w/c feedback (do not keep it long)

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Remind Ss the copy of the text they used in the previous lesson. Ask them to analyze the perfect tenses and underline them Tell them to discuss in pairs what could be the difference between perfect simple and perfect continuous (as form, meaning) Write two of the sentences from the text on the w/b shark attacks have been rising, ... Human beings have explored less than ten per cent of the oceans, ... Elicit their answers about the difference between two sentences based on their discussion in pairs Direct their answers as an emphasis on duration and result by using CCQs We use the continuous form to emphasise the duration of the action (which started in the past and continues up to now) We use the simple form to emphasise the result of the action, about single completed actions or with state verbs Let them discuss and decide why the writer chose the specific tense in the rest of the sentences

Highlighting (2-4 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

Write a model sentence about yourself on the w/b, highlighting the key words to draw the students' attention to the target language. I have been teaching at universities since 2012. Does the activity continue up to and include the present?Yes Is the action still continuing? Yes When did it start ? in 2012 What do we want to emphasize ? Duration (from 2012 up to now) Draw a timeline on the w/b /let them do it or elicit from them I’ve visited my grandmother this week. Has this week finished? No Do you know the exact day when it happened? No Am I at my grandmother’s house now? Yes

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

Give Ss a guided discovery hand out including gap-fills for Present Perfect Simple vs. Continuous. Let them do individually first Then ask them check in pairs Tell them to write each form of the tenses in pairs. (negative, positive and question) Let them write the forms on the board. (If needed) To make the meaning more clarified give them a handout . Ask them to do the activity in pairs by discussing.

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

Give Ss a controlled practice First to do on their own Then checking answers with their partners Monitor them and check if they have problems with the language focus Do the error correction if necessary

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

Give Ss some words Tell them to write 4 sentences for each tense including affirmative, negative and question sentences in pairs. Nominate Ss to elicit their answers and write them on the board This can help to give feedback

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

Tell Ss to think about their own life events by using the target language Ss speak about activities they have been doing for a length of time with their partners. (ask and answer qs) Give an example if necessary Monitor them if they need help If there is time left, do the error correction as delayed FB

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