Mahrave Samadi Rahim Mahrave Samadi Rahim

Past Modal review
Upper-Intermediate level


In this lesson, students will revise past modals through guided discovery based on a listening task. This is followed by clarification stage where students are encouraged to discover the meaning, form, and pronunciation of the target language. Finally, there is some controlled practice through sentence reformulation and free practice via final role-play speaking activity.


Abc Gap-fill hand out, cards,

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of past modals of deduction, speculation, and criticizing in the context of argument

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide accuracy speaking practice in speaking in the context of argument


Warmer/Lead-in (4-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

-I project an image of a man and woman arguing and ask students to tell me: "what are they doing?" Make sure Ss know what "argue" is using the following CCQs, model and drill its pronunciation. Are you angry when you argue? (yes) Do you agree with someone or disagree? (disagree) -I project the quote at the top of p.64 on the board and the name of the person who said it. I ask Ss to tell me what the quote means and if they think it is funny.

Exposure (6-8 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

- I project two pictures on the board to teach satnav and roundabout. After the elicitation of the words, CCQs, pronunciation and stress drill, and part of speech of the words are going to be clarified. satnav CCQs: Is it used in cars and places? (yes) Does it show your location? (yes) Can you use it for direction? (yes) Roundabout CCQs: Is it a place? (yes) What does it join? (street) What is its shape like? (circle) Do cars go around it or over it? (around) -I project two pictures and ask students about the visuals to activate their schemata before listening. Then the following focus questions are raised and students are asked to listen carefully using ICQs. 1. What do you think the people are arguing about in each photo? 2. What were the arguments about? ICQ can be directed to an individual student who seems distracted: What are you going to do? (listen and answer these questions) After listening, the paircheck can be done followed by the class check. answer key: 1 The two people are flatmates and they are arguing because the man has drunk and finished the woman's milk. 2 They are arguing about how to get to the woman's cousin's house.

Highlighting (6-8 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

- I will give students 6 gapped sentences extracted from the conversations in the listening. I then give Sts time to read the extracts. I instruct them to listen to the conversations and fill the gaps with may have, might have, must have, can’t have, or should have.Then I play the audio, pausing after the first one as a model then let them listen to the whole conversations. If needed, I play the audio again, then I ask them to do the paircheck. Answers are going to be projected to the board.

Clarification (9-11 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

- Students are given a set of 4 cards in pairs to work out the meaning and to match with the target grammar. The pair check and the class check routine is going to be followed. After they match the meaning with appropriate past modal, students are asked to put A-D next to the sentences in the exercise 1.b. paircheck and the class check will be the routine. For the answer checking asking students to write their answers on the board will be more effective. CCQs are asked if there was a confusion regarding the meaning. When are these sentences talking about, present or past? (past) What do you use when you are sure about something in the past? (must have) What do you use when something was possible? (may have / might have) What do you use when something was impossible? (can't have) What do you use when something went wrong? (should have) -The form will be elicited to the board using conscious raising questions: 1. look at 6 sentences from the listening; What kind of verbs are there before main verbs? (modal verbs) 2. what are the words after these modal verbs? (have) 3. what are forms of main verbs? (past participle) Using these questions the form elicited and written on the board.

pronunciation (4-4 minutes) • To provide students with pronunciation practice

- The pronunciation of weak form of 'have' should be highlighted using finger technique. Elicit that have in its weak form never gets stress in a sentence. -While the six sentences are on the board. I ask students to listen to the sentences and repeat them the second time.

Controlled Practice (5-7 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

- students are given H/O of 10 sentences which should be reformulated using past modals. The first one is modeled on the board then ICQS to make sure students are on the right track. A time limit is set. students then check in pairs and then they are given the answers on the board.

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

- I have ten sets of cards containing situations for eliciting the target grammar. I model the elicitation process for one card. Then I put students in pairs to take turns in reading the situations on the cards and then making sentences using past modals. - When students finish their tasks then I ask some students about their response and provide feedback, perhaps highlight some sentences on the board.

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