Çiğdem İskent Çiğdem İskent

Teaching Practice-7 / Health & Fitness
A2 level


In this lesson, students will learn about "could for possibility", "had to / didn't have to for obligation or lack of obligation" through guided discovery, using the reading text from coursebook. They will follow this up with controlled written practice, followed by semi-controlled spoken practice. The lesson will finish up with a free speaking practice.


No materials added to this plan yet.

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of could ( possibility in the past ) / had to - didn't have to ( obligation & lack of obligation in the context of Health

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a small group in the context of health issues and treatments in students' childhood


Warm-up / Lead-in (5-6 minutes) • To provide the context by asking questions and showing pictures

T will ask questions to SS to set up the context Have you ever had an operation? if yes, were you awake during your operation? Do you go for a check-up with your doctor? Are you afraid of going to hospital? Then, T will show two pictures. -ask ss which one is in the past and which one is in the present to be able to lead ss into the " idea of past" and pass to the other stage.

Exposure (3-5 minutes) • To provide context for the target language ( could / had to / didn't have to) through a text or situation

ASK the students to find sentences with "could", "had to" and "didn't have to" by scanning through the text. Expected sentences are: 1) Anaesthesia: Before anaesthesia patients "had to" be awake during operations. 2) Antibiotics: Doctors "could" treat infections properly. 3) Germ theory: Before 1847 doctors "didn't have to" wash their hands before an operation.

Focus on Meaning (8-10 minutes) • To provide a clarification of meaning in general but especailly "could"

T will write those sentences from text on the WB to clarify meaning: 1) Before 1847 doctors "didn't have to" wash their hands before an operations. CCQ: Is it about the future, present or past? PAST. Elicit the meaning "obligation" from students: CCQ: Was it necessary ( by law ) for doctors to wash their hands before 1847? NO. 2) Women in labour "could" be dying from infections...... CCQ: Is it about "ability" or "possibility"? POSSIBILITY BUT SS might overgeneralize by considering the past form of "can". THEN, OMIT "could" from the sentence and stick "were able to" paper and ask ss about the meaning: Women in labour "were able to" be dying (die) from infections..... -LET SS discuss for 1 & 2 mins with their partners about the meaning. THEN ASK; CCQ: Is dying an ability? NO. - MAKE SURE SS to grasp the difference in meaning.

Focus on Form (5-6 minutes) • To draw SS' attention on the form of the TL (could, had to , didn't have to)

- In-pairs , SS will discuss the rule than, T will elicit the sentence rules from the SS. S + COULD (MODAL) + BASE FORM S + AUX + NOT + HAVE TO + BASE FORM DID + NOT + MODAL

Controlled Practice (7-8 minutes) • To practice both meaning and form

T will give HO1 including sentence completion with had to / could / didn't have to. It will be done individually , but checked in pairs. For Feedback, SS will open the folded part of the hand-out.

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide the students with semi-controlled speaking practice of the target language (TL)

In pairs, SS will discuss about what people "could / couldn't or had to " do before these inventions and discoveries. They can refer to the text. For example: anaesthesia: Patients had to be awake during operations People could feel pain during operations. Sanitation: Death rates could rise without clean water. DNA: Scientists couldn't identify diseases. Antibiotics: Doctors couldn't treat infections properly.

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