Natalia Coşkun Natalia Coşkun

TP 5, Modal verbs - permission and obligation
Pre-Intermediate level


In this lesson, studenst will learn about modal verbs 'have to', 'can', 'must' through guided discovery, using the context prepared by the teacher. They will focus especially on the use of these verbs to express obligation and permission while talking about work issues. The lesson will include some controlled, semi-controlled exercises. Then it will finish up with free practice.


Abc Hand-outs

Main Aims

  • Grammar: Modal verbs ‘have to’, ‘can’, ‘must’ in positive and negative sentences used to express the ideas of obligation and permission.

Subsidiary Aims

  • Speaking within the topic 'Work issues' and using these modal verbs to express obligation and permission.


Warmer/Lead-in (2-3 minutes) • To connect this lesson to the previous one

Show the students the picture on the p.56. Ask them to comment it. Is it funny when you boss makes you water flowers for him? Or order sandwiches? Discuss in groups of three what else a new employee might be asked to do at work?

Exposure (5-7 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a situation and elicit the idea of obligation

Stick two flashcards on the WB. One is with strict boss and upset employee, the other one - with nice boss and happy employee. CCQs: Do these bosses look the same? No. Is one of them angry?Yes. Is he too strict to his employee? Yes. Now, look at the ex. 1. From 1 to 6. Discuss in groups of four or three these sentence - what kind of bosses use the sentences? Ask to fold the hand-out in order not see the rules (next ex.). e.g. You mustn't wear jeans to work. - a strict boss says. You can take next Saturday off. - a nice one says. Make them think and elicit the meaning for each of these sentences using CCQs: e.g.You have to go to work this Saturday. - Will you work on Saturday? Most probably yes. - Do you want to work on Saturday? No. - Do you usually when to work? No. - Does your boss decide when you will work? Yes. - Is it an obligation to go to work? Yes. You can take next Saturday off. - Do you normally work on Saturday? - Yes. - Did you decide by your own not to go to work on Saturday? No. - Did you boss tell you not to go to work Saturday? Yes. - Was it a permission to stay at home? Yes. You must arrive o time. - Does everobody normally come on time? Yes. -Is it a strick rule or order? Yes. - Do you need to obey? Yes. Write on the WB the topic of the lesson: Modal verbs.

Focus on Meaning (Guided Discovery) (6-8 minutes) • To clarify the meaning and the use of the target language

Clarify the meaning of the verbs 'can', 'have to', 'must'. Hightlight that the meaning of 'have to' and 'must 'close in positive sentences but different in negative ones. ex. Modal verbs (Teacher's book). Read the rules and choose the correct meaning. Discuss this ex. Work in groups of three. ex. 1., p.56. Grammar. Matching. (Coursebook). Ask the ss to unfold the handout (p.56) and match in pairs the first 6 sentences with the correct rule for each of them. Get the whole class feedback.

Focus on Form (Guided Discovery) (3-4 minutes) • To show and to clarify the form of the target language

Elicit the forms of the modal verbs from the fisrt 5 model sentences. Firts start with positive ones. - Is it postive Yes. Where is the subject? Where is the verb? What's this? What's this? - Is it a negative? Yes. Drill them. Write the models on the WB.

Focus on Pronunciation (3-4 minutes) • To focus on phonological aspects of the target language

Drill the models first. Ex. 1. 57 and Ex. 2, p.57. Fisrt ask sts to read these sentences and elicit if they know about the pronunciation of these modals. Listen and compaire answers in pairs.Practise to say these sentences in pairs.

Controlled Practice (5-6 minutes) • to check the understanding of meaning and the use of TL

Ex. 2, p. 56. (Grammar). Divide the ss into three groups. Jigsaw reading and filling the gaps: Group A fills the first text 'Dress-down Friday', Group B fills the second text 'Work computers', Group C fills the third one 'Flexitime'. 2 min. Then they discuss all the texts and fill the gaps asking each other in groups of three (A, B, C together).

Semi-Controlled Practice (4-6 minutes) • To provide the ss with the TL practice and prepare them to the next communicative task

Speaking practice: Ex. 1, .57 Coursebook. Read the job caharcteristics in the box and tick the ones which are important for you. Ex. 2, p.57 Coursebook. Work in pairs and share your ideas. Decide on the five most important characteristics of a job.

Free Practice (5-6 minutes) • to provide the ss with free practice of the target language

Speaking, ex. 3, p. 57 Coursebook. Work with another pair and compare your lists. Do you agree? Do you disagree? Explain why?

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