Artem Artem

TP6 Past Modals
B2 level


In this lesson SS will learn how to accuse each other of doing or not doing something in an argument using past modals for deduction and criticism.


Abc Two photos of people arguing
Abc tr.4.2
Abc tr.4.3
Abc Gap-fill handout
Abc GD handout
Abc Four photos for CCQs
Abc Sentence-Puzzle
Abc 6 photo role cards

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of past modals in the context of argument

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide the context for GDT via listening to two arguments
  • To provide accuracy speaking practice in a conversation in the context of argument


Warmer/Lead-in (2-4 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

SS look at two photos and try to guess what people in the photos are arguing about. T: "What do you think they are arguing about in this photo? What is this argument about?" (to remind them the verb argue and the noun argument (just in case))

Exposure (4-5 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

SS listen to two conversations checking their ideas about the arguments in the photos. Then they discuss the real reasons for the arguments.

Highlighting (2-4 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

SS listen to 6 extracts from the conversations and fill in the blanks with past modals (done individually). Quick pair check. WCF

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

MATCHING FORM AND MEANING Working in pairs, SS use the sentences from the previous stage to fill in the table with the meanings (functions) of the past modal structures. (2-3 m) CCQs (2-3 m): 1. Are we talking about the present? [No] 2. The past? [Yes] 3. The future? [No] You must have finished it. • Do I think that you are still doing it? [No] • Do I think that you have finished it? [Yes] • Do I mean that you should finish it ASAP? [No] You might have given it to the cat last night. • Am I sure you have given it to the cat? [No] • Do I think your cat will like it? [Well, I am not sure you got my drift there at all] • Do I think the cat ate it? [Yes] I can’t have given it to the cat. • Am I sure I haven’t given it to the cat? [Yes] • Am I sure the cat hasn’t eaten it? [I don’t know, maybe it has, but it wasn’t me who fed it to the cat.] • Do I mean I will not give it to the cat? [No] We should have taken the second exit. • Did we take the second exit? [No] • Will we take the second exit? [Maybe, but it will be later after we find it again] • Did we miss the right way? [Yeah, sounds like that] I may have made a mistake. • Is it possible that I have made that mistake? [Yes] • Is it possible that I will make a mistake in the future? [There’s always a fat chance for that, but we are not talking about the future] • Am I sure I have done everything correctly? [No] PRONUNCIATION (2-3): SS listen to the recording 4.3 trying to mark the sentence stress and intonation. SS listen again and repeat.

Controlled Practice (2-4 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

T asks SS to explain the differences between pairs of pictures. CCQs: 1. He must buy a new car. (Are we talking about P, Pr or F? / Do we know it for sure?) - He must have bought a new car. - Hmm… His wife might have bought it for him. (Are we talking about P, Pr or F? / Do we know know it for sure? / Are we certain about that?) 2. Oh my, she should stay in bed today. (Are we talking about P, Pr or F? What is the best thing for her to do today?) - Oh my, she should have stayed in bed today. - Yeah, she oughtn’t to have come to work. (Are we talking about P, Pr or F? / Where is she now? / What is the best thing for her to do today? Why? / Is she doing it?)

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

GRAMMAR PUZZLE COMPETITION SS are divided into three groups. They are given sheets with speech bubbles on them (on the left there are statements or questions, on the right there are reactions shown with signs only) and a pile of coloured sheets with response prompts which SS should turn into sentences. SS read the first speech bubble, look at the respondent's reaction ('sure, yes' / 'sure, no' / 'I am not sure' / ' you were so wrong') and make the response sentence from the prompts. BUT they must do it quick. As soon as a respond is ready, the team sticks it to the board text to the projected speech bubble. The team which makes most correct and logical sentences in 5 minutes wins. WCF

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

SS work in pairs. Each pair has a photo of two people arguing or being in a conflict. Think who these people are and what they can argue about, what caused the conflict. Prepare a conversation (3-4 lines) using today's grammar. Act it out. Try to show emotions of the people in the photos.

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