Taher Bahrani Taher Bahrani

Intermediate level


The focus of the lesson is on teaching modals of obligation: must, have to, should


Abc Teacher's made
Abc Englsih file, (2013), p.p.38-39

Main Aims

  • To provide the students practice with the modals of obligation; must, have to and should

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide the students with oppurtunities to practice free speaking with the focus on the target language


Stage 1 (lead in) (3-5 minutes) • To set the context of the lesson and make the lesson interesting for the students

In order to set the context and elicit the target language (the modals of obligations; must, have to, should), the teacher describes himself as someone who is fat and likes to lose some weight. However, he does not know what to do. He likes fast food a lot. Every night he has fast food for dinner. He asks the class to tell him what to do.

Stage 2 (contextualizing the Target Language) (5-6 minutes) • The purpose is to contextualize the context to elicit the TL

The teacher asks the students to read a passage including some underlined modals to be matched with their related meanings. The students are supposed to read the passage and then work in pairs and match the underlined phrases in the passage with their meanings.

Stage 3 (introducing the target language) (5-8 minutes) • To clarify all aspects of the target language including MFP

In this stage and after eliciting some of the modals of obligations from the students, the teacher clarifies the target language in details focusing on all aspects of the three intended modals of obligations including their affirmative, negative and questions forms. The teacher also focuses on the different forms and meanings they have (American & British) along with the differences in pronunciation. The teacher also uses CCQs to check the students have fully grasped the main idea.

Stage 4 (practicing the TL point) (4-6 minutes) • The teachers aims at engaging the students more with activities related to the TL

At this stage, the teacher gives the students two exercises to practice the TL more. The first exercise requires the students to fill in the blanks with the appropriate modals of obligations. This exercise should be done in two groups and then the answers should be exchanged to be checked. The second exercise (if time allows) requires the students to prepare some sentences which are grammatically incorrect. They are supposed to provide the correct answers.

Stage 5 (practicing some speaking using the TL) (5-8 minutes) • The aim is to give the students an activity to encourage them speak more using the TL

The reacher asks the students to think of some classroom etiquette. The students are given 2 minutes to think about the topic in pairs and come up with 5 classroom etiquette. They should use the target language.

Stage 6 (if time) (3-5 minutes) • to pracice some more speaking using the TL

The teacher divides the class into two groups. He writes two different topics on two pieces of papers. He gives each group one topic. The students are supposed to go on the board and talk about the topic using the TL without using the context directly. The class is supposed to guess the context.

Stage 7 (feedback and error correction) (3-5 minutes) • to aware the students of different types of errors they had

In this stage the teacher should provide the whole class with feedback related to their performance in different stages. The teacher should also correct the possible problems the students had considering grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation to correct them. The teacher should remember to correct the errors addressing the whole class rather than addressing the students one by one.

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