Deniz Erkan Deniz Erkan

Relative Clauses
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students will learn about the relative clauses and relative pronouns through developing their speaking skills and a variety of language practise handouts. The lesson will begin with a conversation using realia to engage students in the context of Today versus Past. Followed by Presentation stage, during which the target language will be presented. Two controlled activities will be provided for language practice, concluding the class with a flashcard guessing guided freer activity.


Abc Touch screen phone and a laptop
Abc Flashcards with Pictures
Abc Write Definitions for Prompts Handout
Abc Complete the rules and choose correct answers Handout
Abc Board and Marker
Abc Projector
Abc "Twenty Years Ago They Weren't Part of Our Lives" Text Handout
Abc Gap-Fill Handout

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of relative clauses in the context of comparison between today and 20 years ago.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency and accuracy speaking practice in a conversation and information gap practise in the context of favourite people


Stage 1 - Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

As a lead-in, the teacher initiates a class discussion things that are common today, but did not exist twenty years ago. Two examples are provided with realia also written on the board. - a touch screen phone and a laptop. -Students work individually to talk about examples. -Teacher elicits students' ideas, writing them on the board. -Students compare their ideas with the words in the box in pairs. -Meaning of the words will be checked later in Stage 2 -Teacher elicits how many of their ideas were included.

Stage 2 - Exposure (6-8 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text for meaning

To provide a context for the target language for meaning, the text from the coursebook is given to students as a handout. - Ex. 2 Pg. 88 - (Cutting Edge Third Edition Intermediate Student's Book) -Students complete the matching task, working individually, and checking their answers in pairs after completing the task. -Answers are then checked with the teacher feedback. Answers: 1 an app store 2 sat-nav 3 password 4 guyliner 5 blogger 6 wi-fi hotspot 7 personal trainer 8 internet addict 9 Facebook wall 10 energy drink

Stage 3 - Presentation: Defining Relative Clauses (12-15 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language and present the target language.

-Meaning: Since meaning is established through a text in Stage 2, Form and Pronunciation steps are followed in this stage. Modal sentences are provided below. -Form: "Who" - This relative pronoun is used to talk about people, it is the subject of the clause. An engineer is a person. He constructs buildings. -Target Language Form: An engineer is a person who constructs buildings. "Which" - Subject or object pronoun for things, places and animals. Example: Australia is a country. Australia is very nice. -Target Language Form: Australia is a country which is very nice. -"Whose" - John is an old guy. His favorite activity is reading. Target Language Form: John is an old guy, whose favorite activity is reading. "That" - Subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things. (the use of who or which are also fair). Example : An engineer is a person. He works on a construction site. -Target Language Form: An engineer is a person that works on a construction site. Ex : Australia is a very hot country. It has very hot summers. -Target Language Form: Australia is a very hot country that has very hot summers. -Pronunciation: -Each sentence provided above is drilled in two chunks, in order to familiarise the students with both form and pronunciation of the target language. -This stage is concluded with a 4 sentence gap-fill activity, answers of which are elicited from the students. -The activity is projected on to the board by the teacher. -Answers who and that are used to refer to people. which and that are used to refer to things. where is used to refer to locations and places. whose is used to replace possessives. -After the Form, Pronunciation, and a short target language rules activity, students go back to the text, and underline the relative pronouns. Answers: 2- that 3- which 4- n/a 5- who 6- where 7- n/a 8-whose 9- where 10- which

Stage 4 - Controlled Practice: Gap-Fill Activity (8-10 minutes) • To concept check the target language and consolidate comprehension of the target language by providing practise through a gap-fill activity.

-The gap-fill activity 1a from the course book is provided as an handout to students by the teacher. -Students work individually to complete the task, checking their answers in pairs afterwards. -They are given 5 minutes to complete the task, and the teacher monitors as they are completing the task. -Teacher feedback is given to check the answers with the whole class, followed by error correction. Answer key: photocopier, that/which bodyguard, that/who launderette, where plumber, whose vacuum cleaner, that/which

Stage 5 - Second Controlled Practice: Prompts - Form (8-10 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

-Students are instructed to write sentences using the prompts, through target language for each one. -Students work individually, and they are given 5 minutes to complete the task. -Teacher's feedback is conducted for the answers, along with error correction. -Words are provided below with the answer key. A cooker is a machine that/which cooks food A cleaner is a person that/who you pay to clean your house or office. A dry cleaner's is a shop where they clean your clothes for you. A decorator is a person whose job is to paint houses. A stationer's is a shop where you buy office supplies. A boiler is a machine that/which heats water for baths, etc.

Stage 6 - Guided Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language with a guided discovery style.

-Flashcard of people, object and things are handed out to students and they asked to describe their cards using the target language. -Teacher gives them an example, demoing the use of target language. -Students walk around the classroom, talking about their flashcard without telling what they are, others try to guess what it is. -While the students are speaking, the teacher monitors and takes notes on errors. -Delayed error correction is conducted through teacher feedback, eliciting correct forms.

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