Ahmed Adel Ahmed Adel

PET Unit 5B
Upper-Intermediate level


In this lesson, students practise writing a "cause and effect" essay, using linking words or phrases to show the relationship between the causes of the problem and its effects.


Abc White Board
Abc Smart Board

Main Aims

  • To provide product writing practice of two cause-effect paragraphs in the context of the environemnt

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide practice of cause and effect linking words in the context of the environemnt


Lead-in (3-4 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Welcome SS and express your happiness to see them. Ask SS: What are we celebrating these days? Mother's Day. Give each student a sample heart to write their mums a message. Play music (1 minute). Take the attendance and check their homework. Make sure they have answered P. 96 correctly.

Exposure (9-11 minutes) • To provide a model of production expected in coming tasks through reading

Ask SS to read the Writing task they will do at the end of the unit. Ask them to highlight the most important words they think will be essential to their writing (causes - effects). (1 minute). Ask SS to read the "Selecting" box. Check: Do we write immediately after reading the task? No Do we think about the essay title? Yes Should the information be relevant - related to the task? Yes Give SS HO1 and ask them to select the irrelevant sentence (3 minutes). ICQs: Will you write anything? No Will you find the relevant or irrelevant sentence? Irrelevant How many sentences should you find? One SS check in pairs before giving them the answer (sentence II). Refer SS to Exercise 1: We have some points about climate change in the grey box. Some are causes of climate change and others are effects. In pairs, decide which are the causes and which are the effects and complete the ideas map (5 mins). ICQs: Will you work alone or in pairs? In pairs How many causes do we have? Six How many effects? Seven How many minutes do you have? 5 mins Play music and monitor. Show answers on the board.

Useful Language (15-16 minutes) • To highlight and clarify useful language for coming productive tasks

Write on the board: Deforestation leads to habitat destruction. Elicit from SS the "cause" part and the "effect" one. Elicit linking words and phrases: "causes - results in". Highlight the prepositions with each linking word. Write on the board: Habitat destruction is due to deforestation. Elicit the "effect" part and the "cause" one. Elicit linking words and phrases: "caused by - the result of". Highlight the prepositions with each linking word. Refer SS to Exercise 1 and let them answer it (2 minutes). ICQs: Can you have more than one correct answer? Yes SS check in pairs before seeing the answers on the screen. Divide SS into 4 groups. Ask each group to get a smartphone that has access to the internet. Ask SS to give their team a "Nickname". Show the Game PIN on the screen and ask them to join the game. SS write their nicknames in each team. Tell them that the questions will be on the screen and the answers should be on the phones, by choosing the right colour. ICQs: Will each team use many phones or just one? Just one Will you answer in groups or individually? In groups Who will be the winner: the slowest or the quickest to answer? The quickest Wait for all of them to join. Monitor and make sure each team uses one phone only. Play the game (7 minutes). Tell SS that this was Exercise 2 on P. 99. Show them the answers. Write on the board: The environment is changing because humans are burning fossil fuels. The climate is changing because of human activity. Elicit the difference between what comes after because and because of and highlight it. Ask SS to answer Exercise 3 on P. 99 (2 minutes). SS check in pairs before seeing the answers on the screen.

Productive Task (20-22 minutes) • To provide an opportunity to practice target productive skills

Refer SS to the "Explanation" box on P. 100. Give them 2 minutes to read it. Check: How many kinds of topic sentences do we have? 2 kinds What are these kinds? General statement and including the topics of the supporting sentences Ask SS to answer Ex. 1 in pairs. Give them 3 minutes. SS check answers on the screen. Ask SS to answer Ex. 2 individually. Give them 3 minutes. SS check in pairs before seeing the answers on the screen. SS write two cause-effect paragraphs on P. 101 using the ideas map on P. 97. Give them 12 minutes.

Feedback and Error Correction (10-12 minutes) • To provide feedback on students' production and use of language

Write some sentences from SS' writings. Ask them to decide, in pairs, which are correct and which need correction (2 minutes). Refer SS to P. 65 in the book and let them highlight the differences between each sentence in an introduction (5 mins). Give them an idea about the exam.

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