Mahyar Douraghi Mahyar Douraghi

Modals of speculation (Grammar)
upper-intermediate level


The focus of this lesson is modals of speculation. Students will learn this through the general context of "Bill of health" which was set in the previous lesson. The students will also work on the correct pronunciation of modals of speculation.


Abc Picture
Abc Grammar clarification
Abc Test 2
Abc Test 1

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification, review and practice of modals of speculation in the context of Bill of health

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a conversation in the context of Bill of health


Stage 1 (Test #1) (6-8 minutes) • To gauge students' prior knowledge of the target language

-Greet the Ss -Instruct the Ss to answer Test 1, activity 4 from WB page 47 -Give them clear instruction of how they need to answer it: they are three oprtions for each sentence, one of them is incorrect, they need to delete the INCORRECT option -Give the Ss HO of the above test -Monitor them during the test to see how they are doing it -Pair them so they compare their answer -Give WC FB of the above test

Stage 2 (Warmer/Lead-in) (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

-Display the photo from the previous lesson (Shafak) -Ask the Ss what do you think had happened after they fount it ou? -Do you think the patient is dead? -Who do you think had left the scissor inside the body?

Stage 3 (Teach) (10-15 minutes) • To clarify areas of the target language where students had difficulty in the first test stage

-First teach the word "Speculating". Look at the window and ask the Ss is it going to rain? are you sure? are you guessing? so you are speculating. -Instruct the Ss to do the grammar activity 1 from SB page 78 (guided discovery) -Pair them so they compare their answers -Clarify the target language (Modals of speculation) by asking CCQs, which one is more certain? which one is in present|?future?past? draw a cline if necessary -Play the audio file 2.7 from SB page 79 (Pronunciation: weak forms & contractions) -Pause after each sentence and drill the model sentence from the above audio -Give Ss HO of the Grammar Reference from the SB page 79 for their further study

Stage 4 (Test #2) (10-12 minutes) • Check students' use of the target language again and compare with the first test

-Instruct the Ss to to the activity 2 from the SB page 78, 79 (They're going to read the story and then choose the best verb form to complete the sentences 1-8)- Give Ss clear instruction for this activity by showing and telling them that for each sentence its two options, and they're going choose the correct option based on the story -Pair them so they compare their answers -Give SB FB for the above activity

Free practice (12-15 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

-Display the picture from the SB page 79 on OHP -Pair the Ss and instruct them to speculate about the people in the picture "Why do you think these people are sitting in a hospital waiting room?" -Monitor the Ss during the activity, if any error encountered do the delay error correction -Ask WC about their speculation on the above picture

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