Ahmed Samy Ibrahim Abdelrahman Ahmed Samy Ibrahim Abdelrahman

Modal verbs for making deductions
Upper Intermediate, B2 level


In this lesson, Ss learn about the use of modal verbs for making deductions in both the past and the present through guided discovery based on a conversation about losing a mobile. The lesson starts with a short discussion about how often we lose things and whether we find them again, followed by a gap-fill activity where Ss listen to a recording and then a controlled gap-fill activity. Finally, Ss work in pairs to make some deductions about a few pictures.


Abc Pictures deductions handout
Abc Choose the correct answer handout
Abc Guided Discovery meaning and form questions
Abc Gap-fill handout
Abc A picture of a lost wallet

Main Aims

  • By the end of the lesson, Ss will be better able to make deductions about both the past and the present in the context of losing things.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency and accuracy speaking practice in making deductions in the context of losing things.


Lead-in (5-8 minutes) • To generate interest in the context of the listening

T projects the picture of a wallet laying on the floor to elicit the context of the losing things. T asks Ss to describe the picture and explain what might have happened. T projects ex2a from the Ss book, p 94 and ask Ss to discuss these questions in pairs. T sets a time limit of 3 minutes and then do a quick feedback. T projects the pictures in p 94 from the Ss book and asks Ss if the characters in the pictures are wearing the same outfit to elicit that this is happening on the same day. T asks Ss to work in pairs and try to guess the location of each picture. T sets a time limit of 2 minutes.

Listening task (5-7 minutes) • To contextualise and introduce the target language.

T projects the questions in the Ss book, ex3, p95 and tells Ss that they are going to listen to a conversation between Louise and Angie about what they did last night. T explains the exercise and that Ss will only listen to the recording once. T asks Ss to check their answers in pairs and then hands each S a copy of the recording transcript as a way of checking the correct answers.

Highlighting and clarifying target language (10-13 minutes) • To highlight the marker sentences of the target language that students will be focused on and then clarify its meaning, form and pronunciation.

T projects ex4 from the Ss book p 95 on the WB and explains how to complete it. T splits the class into pairs and sets a time limit of 4 minutes. T nominates some Ss to say the answers and clarify any inconsistent ones. T plays the recording to highlight the weak form of have and the sentence stress. T marks the phoneme and the stress on the WB:    Someone could have taken it from your bag /kʊdəv/ T models the correct pronunciation and does some drilling chorally and then in groups.

Controlled language practice (5-7 minutes) • To provide controlled written practice focusing on using the target language accurately.

T projects ex7 from the Ss book, p95 and explains it and highlight that Ss need to guess who the note is from. T asks Ss to work alone and sets a time limit of 3 minutes. T asks Ss to check their answers in pairs and then plays the recording.

Freer language Practice (5-7 minutes) • To provide freer oral practice focused on using the target language productively.

T projects ex9 from the Ss book, p111 and explains it. T splits the class into pairs and sets a time limit of 5 minutes. T monitors and does some hot error correction whenever needed. T does some feedback and delayed error correction if needed.

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