B Douglas Thomas B Douglas Thomas

Modals and Phrases to express permission, obligation and prohibition
Upper-Intermediate level


In this lesson students will re-examine, extend and demonstrate their ability to use various modal forms (e.g. can, must, need to, have to) in different contexts. My lead-in will be to write on w/b a sentence then elicit responses about possible alternatives. Additionally, students will be introduced to a more thorough understanding of lexicalized syntax models and non-lexicalized syntax modals. Next Ss will be asked to give examples of phrases which communicate permission and prohibition e.g be allowed to, must not. My follow-up will be a listening activity which will test their understanding of the different forms. To ensure this is the case I will use concept questions in a rapid fire succession to keep the grammar centered lesson from becoming boring. In this way the Ss will not only enjoy what they are studying, but will learn more quickly.


Abc Q Skills for Success
Abc Copy
Abc Hand-out
Abc CD

Main Aims

  • Language Focus[review and extension] modals & phrases to express permission, obligation & prohibition

Subsidiary Aims

  • Speaking using modals and phrases
  • To further develop listening and speaking skills


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Write one sentence on the w/b: We had to wake-up early today. Next, I will ask Ss what "had to" means. Acceptable answers synonymous with obligation would be acceptable. Ss will then be asked to think of substitutes to "had to" --needed to, were obliged to, were required to, were bound to, were forced to......

Writing/Rewriting (5-10 minutes) • Increase understanding of phrases in everyday use

Ss will be given ex 1 and told to rewrite sentences using the phrases given without looking at the book. The Ss will be put in pairs or groups depending on the number present. 1. Ss will peer-check the answers 2. Ss will check book for correct answers.

Chart work (3-5 minutes) • Check understanding

Teacher will make demo chart with appropriate heading of each relevant phrase and instruct Ss to put correct phrase in corresponding column.

Handout (3-5 minutes) • To enhance Ss understanding of topic

Give Ss HO of ex 5, but with the modals deleted and have them fill-in the blanks. After which elicit FB and ask why "to" is appropriate in some but not in other

Workbook ex 1 and ex 2 (5-7 minutes) • Test understanding

Give Ss ex 1 and ex 2 from workbook to work on in pairs. Put ANSWERS ON WALL!!!!!

ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES (10-15 minutes) • Listening Comprehension/critical thinking

1.Ss listen to a story about alternative therapists. Ss make notes about main event of story then check ideas in pairs quickly 2..Ss listen again. Jot down KEY words. NOT whole sentences! PLAY CD AGAIN. 3. Now put Ss in pairs or groups depending on size of class and REWRITE story in own words. 4. When finished have them check with other pairs/groups 5 When finished give original version from tapescript to check against.

Web site designed by: Nikue