Maria Alina POLAT Maria Alina POLAT

Maria Alina Polat, Defining, Non Defining and Reduced Relative Clauses
Upper-intermediate level


In this lesson students will learn the use and practice of defining, non-defining and reduced relative clauses in the context of magical novels "One hundred years of Solitude" and "The House of Spirits" as well as controlled and freer practice.


Abc Slide page 32
Abc papers ex 4/22
Abc hand out pg 32
Abc handout page 33
Abc Slide page 33

Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of the defining, non-defining and reduced relative clauses in the context of magic novels and real life

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide gist and scan reading in order to understend what it is about and identify the relative clauses in the text


Stage 1 - Lead in (3-4 minutes) • To set the context of the lesson and engage students

Teacher introduces herself, welcomes the students and checks that she knows them by their names. As a warmer, the teacher plays a video "Nanny Mcphee and the Big Bang" . The video is about a nanny who has magical powers. The video introduces the context of the lesson which is magical novels. Students should guess what the video is about. Teacher tries to elicit the context. The fact that the women in the video has magical, supranatural powers and uses them to manage the children.

Stage 2 - Gist reading the texts A and B (8-9 minutes) • To get the main ideea of the two books for magical realism genre.

Teacher asks Students: Have you ever heard or read books about spirits and ghosts? Have you seen any film of this kind? Teacher pre teach some vocabulary before reading by eliciting the unknown words. Solitude = loneliness (being alone) Magical realism = magical and supernatural appear in a realistic context isolated = alone amnesia = loss of memory a spirit = a ghost a coup = a revolution, an action Task: Read the texts A and B which are summary of two books. What these books are about ? Teacher gives the handout with the reading texts. Then students check with their partner what the two texs are about and what the main ideea is. Then teacher does the wholeclass feedback

Stage 3 - Clarification of the form of defining, non-defining and reduced relative clauses (7-9 minutes) • To draw the models sencences in the texts they' ve read, use the TL in other examples

Teacher asks the students to look at the green marked sentences in the two texts and highlights the words that introduce the relative clause. (that, which, whose, where, when, who). These are defining relative clauses. ...that made magical realism popular around the world. ... where supernatural happenings are part of everyday life. ... whose lives are changed by their country's politics. ... when polictical groups are battling fro control of the country. Teacher writes on the board: Defining relative clauses tell you which person, thing etc. the writer or speaker is talking about. In defining clauses we use: who or what for people, That or which for things, whose for possessives, where for places, when for times. We don't use commas for defining clauses. Then students have to look at the pink colored sentences in the texts. These are non-defining relative clauses. ..., whose girlfriend is the most beautiful girl ever born,... ..., which Marquez says is based on his childhook memories of living with his grandparents, ... ..., which takes place at an unnamed South American country,... ..., who builds her a large house in the country,.... They are extra non essential information and we use commas. The sentence makes sense without it. We don't use that in non-defining clauses. When we leave who/that/which out is the object. These are the reduced clauses. ...everyone (who is) living in the village... ...the first novel (that was) written.... In order for the students to understand the form of the relative clauses, the teacher asks CCQs for the model sencentes.

Stage 4 - Practice Ex. 6 and 7, page 33, ex, 4 page 22 workbook (17-24 minutes) • To provide controlled and freer practice of the TL

Teacher gives the task for the ex. 6. Read the review of "The Alchemist". Fill in the gaps with who, which etc. if necessary. One gap doesn't need a word. Students read and do the exercise. Then check with their partner for the correct answer. The whole class feedback. Teacher projects the exercies on the board and nominates students to fill in the gaps on the board. Teacher gives the next practice task. Join these sentences using defining, non-defining and reduced relative clauses. Then Ss check for the right answers in pairs. Then the whole class feedback. Techer nominates students to tell the answers. The next practice task: Teacher sticks 4 papers with the Balck beauty story on the walls. Students make groups for three or four. They have to fill in the gaps with who, that, which , whose, where or when. The fastest team will be the winner. Then Ss check to see what other groups have filled in the gaps. Then the whole class feedback. If there is time left, teacher asks students to talk to their partner (pair work) to make relative clauses using some context related vocabulary. Eache student should give three examples. film, movie, book, story. Eg. Yesterday I watched that movie. It was very good. The movie that I saw yesterday was very good. Teacher does delayed error correction using different correction techniques: - offers choices: which or who? - repeats utterance: The film that..... - reformulation... - ask a question... Any book or a special one?

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