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A2 level


In this lesson, students will learn how to talk about rules and necessities in the context of transport. The target language is modals (can/can't) and semi-modal 'have to/don't have to'


Main Aims

  • To provide clarification and practice of the modal forms, 'can/can't and have to/don't have to', in the context of transport

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide accuracy speaking practice in a conversation in the context of transport


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T regroups the ss and gives HO for the lead-in activity. Ss discusses the questions about the cycling conditions in Istanbul. FB: WC/Nominating ss

Exposure (6-8 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

T elicits rent: "I am not rich. So I can't buy a house. But, for a month, I can ____ it" (Rent) T tells the story and using the pictures and the phrases on the board "I went to Paris. And I wanted to rent a "bike". My hotel was "X" here and I wanted to go to this museum "Y". But I wanted to take the train to go back. They said: "Oh don't worry, You can leave the bike at any station in the city". There was a child there. She was 13 years old. She wanted to ride a "bike", too. They said "No. A thirteen-year-old child can't use the bikes". There was also a "fat" man. He wanted to rent a bike. They said "No. You can't. Users have to be healthy!". Then I said "I'm in a hurry! Come on! How much is it?" They said "Users don't have to pay for the first thirty minutes." Inst: Match the meanings with the sentences on the board. T gives the HO.

Clarification (10-12 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language

CCQs: 1) Can you leave the bike at any station in the city? Yes. 2) Is there an option? Yes. 3) Can a thirteen-year-old use the bikes? No. 4) Is there an choice? No. Is it a rule? Yes. 5) Do users have to be healthy? Yes. 6) Is there a choice? No. 7) Do users have to pay for the first thirty minutes? No. 8) Is there a choice?Yes. Can I pay it if I want? Yes. Inst: Look at the next exercise. Fill in the table. Work in pairs. FB: T nominates ss to write the answers on the board and highlights there is no 'to' between 'can' and main verb. ---------- After can/can't, do we put "to"? No. Inst: Repeat after me and tell me. Positive or negative? T drills the weak forms using these sentences. You can't leave the bike. They can ride a bike. They have to be healthy. They don't have to pay money.

Semi-Controlled Practice (6-8 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

Inst: Fill in the blanks with can/can't and have to/don't have to. Work in pairs. FB: Early finishers come and write the answers on the board. OR Ss nominate each other to answer If time left: Inst: Discuss. Are there sentences are true for Istanbul?

Free Practice (10-12 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

T regroups ss (weakers together, stronger together) by saying A, B, C Inst: Amsterdam, Madrid, Prague tourist cards.. Read your texts and fill your chart. Don't look at your peer's table. T give HO for each s. Monitoring: T helps weaker ss Inst: Ask questions to your peers. Fill out the spaces about the other cities. Monitoring: T helps weaker ss find some questions. Inst: Discuss. Which is the best? Why? FB: Delayed feedback for accuracy. If time allows, ss speaks out different cities's transport card systems.

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