To provide clarification of the present perfect simple in the context of for and since.
To provide gist reading practice using a text about present perfect simple tense.
Procedure (38-50 minutes)
Pair the students up and get them to talk to their partners about three things they did last summer. Each pair records the action verbs discussed and shares their findings with the class. As a class they have to decide who had the most interesting, fun, or boring summer.
Aids: Handout with text to read Introduce the text and tell the students that they have to read it and find the answers to the questions below (at this point, do not mention the new tense or the adverbs that they will be discussing later). 1- Where is Amira living now? 2- Does she like it? Now read: Hi! My name is Ayse. I am from Turkey, but I live in the London. I have lived in the London for five years. I like it here very much because I can improve my English. I have always loved the English language. I have learned English since I was in high school. Living in the U.K has been very interesting! I have met so many nice people. They are from all over the world. It has been a great experience so far.
Guide the students toward the new tense and its function through the following concept questions: T: Go back to the text. We know that Ayse is living in the U.K now. But, did she live in another country before? S: Yes. In Turkey. T: Correct. She is from Turkey. When did she move to London? Do you know? S: (They may come up with 5 years ago, as they are familiar with the simple past tense and the adverbs in the past time. If not, make sure you guide them toward that answer.) T: Very good. She has lived in London for 5 years. That means that she moved to London 5 years ago. (Make sure the verb is emphasized as well as the period; a time line can be drawn on the board to show when Ayse was in Turkey, and for how long she has been in London. Time lines are good to show time periods visually). Is she still living in London? S: Yes. T: How many years? S: Five years. T: Did she learn English when she was in Turkey? S: Yes. In high school. T: Is she still learning English in London? S: Yes. T: Did she like learning English in the past? Does she like English now? S: Yes. T: Great. So, in this text, Ayse tells us about some of the things she started in the past and she is still doing in the present, and to express that she uses a new tense. We call this tense the present perfect. (Write the name on the board). Let’s see how we use this tense. Do we use the present perfect for actions that finished in the past? Listen: Ayse has lived in London for 5 years. Does it mean she is living in London now? S: Yes. T: Correct. So, we use it to talk about actions that started in the past and still continue in the present. (Write the function on the board. Use the time line to show the connection of the past action in the present time.)
Ask student to complete the phrases with for or since.
Ask Ss to complete the question, make them work in pairs and regroup them to ask and answer the questions together
interactive pattern: individual work; group work. Students are encouraged to write a paragraph using the present perfect to describe actions that they have started in the past and they are still doing in the present. It could be about their present hobbies, jobs, studies, etc. Then, students will pick the activity they prefer the most and share it with the class. The other students give feedback explaining if they have also done the same or not, how often they do it, when they started it, etc. They may use the simple past as well as the simple present if necessary.