Zahra Ghavidast Zahra Ghavidast

An early Bird or a night Owl
Elementary level


In this lesson, learners learn about the adverbs of Frequency through a set of guided discovery exercises. The lesson starts with a small talk about the sudents' being early birds or night owls. Then, the teacher presents the grammar through some examples. Then, the students discover more detailed rules about this grammar through a very interesting questionnaire. It continues with a controlled practice about frequency adverbs. The lesson ends with a productive activity about the students themselves.


Abc an answer key
Abc Handout
Abc paper for writing
Abc pictures
Abc Teacher-made slips of paper
Abc whiteboard
Abc a ball

Main Aims

  • To make the students use the Frequency Adverbs in the context of being an early bird or a night owl

Subsidiary Aims

  • To make the students discover where the Frequency of Adverbs appear in a sentence with the verb 'be'
  • To make the students discover the rules for the Adverbs of Frequency by themselves.
  • To make the students discover where the Frequency of Adverbs appear in a sentence with other verbs
  • To make the students personalize the grammar by making sentences about their real lives


Lead-In (4-7 minutes) • To arouse the students' interest in the context and engage them in the context

1. Personalize the context:( We are going out tonight. This is the last day of our course and we're gonna have a lot of fun. We are meeting at 9:30. I don't like staying up late at night but tonight is a really special night and I am going to enjoy it. Do you like to join us? Do you like going out/ staying up late at night? or you like going to bed early and getting up early in the morning?) 2. Put them in pairs and make them talk about if they like to stay up late at nigh or go to bed early and get up early in the morning. Write the question on the board for the newcomers if there are any. 3. Play the music for them so that they stop being self-conscious. 4. Monitor them. 5. Ask some of them to talk about their partner's attitude towards the matter. 6. Put them in groups of four. 7. Say, " So, we are going out tonight. Talk with your friends and decide what time, where to go, what to do and why?" 8. Say, " Decide about it and every person from each group will come to the board and say what the group's plan is. Let's see who's got the best plan." 9. Monitor them attentively but don't be overbearing. 10. Ask each group's secretory to come to the front part of the class and talk about their plans. 11. Encourage Ss to listen by telling them "Let's see who's got the best plan." 12. We decide who's plan is the nicest.

Presentation of meaning (4-8 minutes) • To familiarize the students with the concept of Frequency adverbs

As the students are more likely to have heard the words, I am going to test them first to engage them to do the activity and arouse their curiosity to learn more. 1. Divide the board into two and draw two Frequency Adverb continuums on the board with 0%and 100% written on it. Put the word 'hardly ever' on each one. 2. Divide the class into two(A) and (B) and give each group 5 slips of paper reading 'always, usually, often, sometimes, never. Tell them to stick them on the continuum. 3. Play the music. 4. After they are done, decide who the winner is. 5. Tell them to sit down and now present the words on the board with an example to clarify the meaning.(I always get up early.) I will drill the words in sentences. 6. Tell them these are the adverbs of frequency. They show how often things happen. gesture it with your hand to show repetition. The meaning of the adverbs should be clarified. for example: I hardly ever go shopping. Do I go shopping every day? No I often clean my room. Do I clean my room every day? No Do I hardly ever clean my room? No

Guided Discovery (3-6 minutes) • To make the students do the questionnaire so that in the other stage they can discover the rules

1. Show them the pictures and elicit the words ' a night owl' and ' an early bird'. 2. Give them the handout. 3. Tell them to do the questionnaire in 2 minutes. 4. Give them a paper to see if they are early birds or night owls. 5. Put them in groups (Change the members) and tell them to discuss their answers and compare them. 6. Ask them to talk about one of their friend's being a night owl or an early bird.

Presentation of form through a guided discovery exercise (6-10 minutes) • To make them discover the rules about the adverbs of frequency using the questionnaire

1. Tell them to find and underline the frequency adverbs in the questionnaire. 3. Once more elicit from them the frequency adverbs in order. 4. ICQ your instruction by asking them what they are going to do. 5. Tell them to check their answers with a partner. You monitor them and check them. 6. Tell them to read the part b of exercise 3 very carefully and answer the questions. You need to say that they are going to choose the word 'after' or 'before'. Tell them to check the answer in pairs. 7. Give them the answer key. 8. Write all the frequency adverbs on the board and tell the students them to come to the board and write one sentence for each. It is a good idea to write the sentences of the questionnaire because they are surely correct. 9. Now elicit the rules from the students by underlining the frequency adverbs in red. After they know where these adverbs appear, drill the sentences. Use the features of connected speech for them like. She is always happy. between /z/ and /a/ 10. Write the sentence " I am always happy" on the board and underline the word always and substitute other adverbs and make them make the sentences and repeat. 11. Once more write the sentence ' I always take a shower in the morning." and underline the word 'always' and change the adverb and make them drill the sentence. Try to make them understand where these adverbs occur.

Slips of paper practice (3-5 minutes) • To make them work in groups and decide where the frequency adverbs go.

1. Put them in groups of 4. 2. Give them some slips of paper and tell them to put them in order in groups and stick them on the board. 3. Then, tell them to read the sentences themselves.

Controlled Practice (5-8 minutes) • To make them use the frequency of adverbs in sentences about themselves.

1. Give them clear instructions to do part 4. Do one of them as an example. 2. Tell them to check their answer in pairs. 3. Tell them to come to the board holding their handouts. 4. Give them the ball to nominate each other to answer the questions by throwing the ball to each other.

production(Semi-controlled) (3-5 minutes) • To make them produce some sentences about themselves and their families using te frequency adverbs.

1. Tell them to speak about themselves and their families and use the adverbs. 2. ICQ your question. Say, " What are you going to talk about? What are you going to use? What are the Frequency Adverbs?" 3. Now, tell them to speak in pairs. 4. Play the music. 5. Monitor them. 6. Write down the errors they make. 7. Correct the errors on the board.

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