Hande Akar Hande Akar

Modals of Obligation
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn about modals of obligation through guided discovery based on a reading text about using mobile phones.


Abc English File Intermediate Students' Book
Abc Speakout Intermediate Students' Book
Abc PPT on CCQ

Main Aims

  • To enable Ss to use modals of obligation: must/have to/ should accurately and appropriately

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice


Warmer/Lead-in (3-4 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

Show your phone to Ss. Ask if they use their phone a lot or not. Get answers.

Exposure (7-9 minutes) • To teach some vocabulary related to target language

Show the PPT to the Ss and ask them questions aboout the pictures. Start telling the situations, elicit the words and get answers. Write them on the board after CCQs and modelling. Do the questionnaire on using phones. They work in pairs.

Highlighting and Guided Discovery (7-8 minutes) • To draw students' attention to the target language

Give the reading text to the Ss. Ss need to come up with the meaning and use of the grammar point of this lesson. Tell Ss they will read the text individually for 3 minutes and then discuss about the answers.

Clarification (11-13 minutes) • To clarify the meaning, form and pronunciation of the target language and To provide with an opportunity to respond to the text and expand on what they've learned and to focus on grammar

Ask the CCQs Elicit the anwers Draw a line on which modal is strong and which one is weak and elicit the time of the actions in the sentences Elicit the form of the target language

Semi-Controlled Practice (8-9 minutes) • To concept check further and prepare students for free practice

Ss watch a video of Steve Jobs. Ask for their comments after they have watched. Then, divide them into two groups and want them to think about ways to be successful. Ss need to discuss it as a group and write their ideas on the paper they have. Finally, they demonstrate it in front of the class.

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