Seçil Aydın Seçil Aydın

Have to/had to: Questions and Short Answers
A2/B1 level


In this lesson, students learn about the questions forms and short answers of 'have to' in present and past through guided discovery based on a reading text about a footbal referee. The lesson starts with questions about the text. This is followed by a listening. There is a controlled practice through making questions and free practice via a discussion activity.


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Main Aims

  • To provide clarification of question forms and short answers of 'have to' in present and past to talk about lack of obligation in the context of a job

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency speaking practice in a discussion in the context of the three jobs they learned about previously.


Warmer/Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

T asks Ss what they can remember about Bernie and his job. Wants them to talk about it with their pairs for a second and gets some of the answers. Writes them on the board as key words.

Exposure (8-10 minutes) • To provide context for the target language through a text or situation

Firstly, T asks Ss to read the 5 questions on 8a and then read the text about Bernie to answer these questions individually. After that, Ss work in pairs to compare their answers. Then, T gives whole class feedback.

Clarification (8-10 minutes) • To clarify the form of the target language

First, T draws an empty chart on the board. On this chart, there are 'present simple' and 'past simple' parts. Then T shows the questions to the Ss with the help of a PPT page so that Ss can see all of the questions clearly. T wants Ss to look at the questions and ask them which of the questions are in present form and past form. Then, she wants Ss to help her with filling the chart by asking question like these: What is the first thing in a question? (question words -wh) What comes after 'what'? (does, did) After does did, what do we have? (I, he, she) Do we use past form or infinitive form of the verb? (infinitive) Then, she moves to Yes/No questions and short answers. She shows another PPT page and again ask questions to elicit the form and short answers.

Controlled Practice (8-10 minutes) • To concept check and prepare students for more meaningful practice

In this stage, Ss are listening to Rick and Lorna talking about their jobs but before that they need to make questions using have to in present and past form. First, T focuses on the example question and then wants the Ss to work on their own for three minutes. While Ss are working on this, T sticks some pictures on the board. After that, T introduces the new words they will need while listening. T uses pictures for the words 'a microphone, a bone, an emergency, stay calm and a roof'. With the help of these pictures T asks eliciting and CC questions. After getting the meanings from the Ss, T wants them to listen carefully and answer the questions on their own. T plays the recording twice. Then, T wants Ss compare their answers with their partners and she gives whole class feedback.

Free Practice (8-10 minutes) • To provide students with free practice of the target language

In this stage, T groups students by assigning them a job one by one.(interpreter, paramedic, football referee). After grouping them, T asks them 'Which of the three jobs do you want to do most?' Gives them three minutes and wants them to work in pairs. Ss can take notes but cannot write full sentences. While they are speaking with their partners, T goes around the class and checks if there are any problems with target language. After three minutes, T demonstrates the activity and talks about being a teacher using have to/had to. Then, asks for volunteers and nominates the Ss. At the end of it, T does error correction if there are any problems.

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