Reza Vasa Reza Vasa

Reading- Predicting
Intermediate level


In this lesson the learners will learn the reading strategy of predicting through the context of global warming and the carbon connection. I hope to achieve this through a Pre, while-, post-reading approach of teaching receptive skills. The lesson starts with a lead-in by which I try to establish a connection between weather forecast and prediction and prediction of learning passage. I will try to elicit through pairwork whether they can guess through non-linguistic features what a passage is going to dialogically and later explicitly learn what predicting is. They are going to be asked and later told that there are some other features that could help learners predict the content of a passage. The learners are then taken through the while- and post-reading activities to learn the strategy and explicitly talk about it through a modified version of Reciprocal Teaching. The lesson is rounded off with a verbal protocol activity trying to take the students to the highest level of Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive domain.


Abc Anderson (2003)
Abc Brown (2007)
Abc Goodman (1970)
Abc HO 1
Abc HO 4

Main Aims

  • To provide strategy training on a top-down strategy of predicting. By the end of this session, the learners at this intermediate level are expected to have a better understanding of a text by employing the strategy of predicting with the top-down processing and they are also employ this to future contexts.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To provide fluency and accuracy speaking practice in a conversation in the context of the global warming and reducing carbon emissions


Lead-in (3-4 minutes) • To set lesson context and engage students

1. Greeting the students, asking how they feel. 2. Asking whether the weather is hot. 3. Asking what they do when it is very hot. 4. Asking what the weather will be like in the next couple of days. 5. Asking who predicts the weather and why they do so, trying to come up with some ideas. These questions are somehow related to the topic of the lesson, prediction. Hence, leading them in to the final question: Is it good to predict what we are going to read? Will it help our understanding? And with this question we move to the next phase" Pre-listening.

Pre-Reading (10-12 minutes) • To prepare students for the text and make it accessible

To have the students activate their schemata by looking at some extralinguistic features, some pictures will be put on the board. The photos are googled on the topic of global warming. 1. Students form groups with neighbors. T gives instructions: Look at these pictures (three different pictures) and guess what the passage will be about. In pairs say what you think the passage is about and why. You will have 1 min only. 2. ICQs: Are we writing? Yes. Are we guessing. Yes. Are we sure? No. Does it help us understand the passage better? Yes. So guess. (30 seconds) Time is set: 1 min. 3. Another questions is raised. Can we predict the reading using anything else? Do we only use pictures to predict? Again asking? What are we doing? talking about other things that can help us to guess. 4. T: Again in pairs, talk. 1 min. 5. T asks students what the passage will be by nominating to see whether weaker students have come up with ideas or not. OK. Gokhan, Can you tell me what you think picture A is about? (If he can't answer, a better student will be asked.) 5. At this stage no nomination will take place and probably better and more impulsive rather than reflective learners will have their share to avoid their boredom. T praises the learners' responses if they have come up with the idea of title, I will say great and move to the next slide. 6. At this stage three titles are given and then the learners are asked: Can you choose the best title for the three pictures and write them under each picture? 7. WC feedback. (1 min) 8. Now when we guess this picture is about global warming, for example, can we predict the words? Sts: Probably say yes. 9. As a whole class activity the teacher now writes three groups of words on the board or shows the three sets on a slide and says: Look at these words. where do you expect these words? Choose the title and the picture. 10. (Contingency Plan) If the students do not find the activity engaging enough or the whole stage takes shorter, I will have them add to the list words.

While-Reading #1 (10-12 minutes) • To provide students with less challenging predicting task to match Bloom's taxonomy

The learners are divided into groups of four. (If there are 9 students, groups of three. If fewer, pairs) They are told that they will be given the paragraphs one by one. They are first supposed to see whether they guessed correctly on their guessing with the pictures and title and the words provided in the pre-reading phase. CCQs: Will you get the whole passage? No. Will you work with your friends? Yes. First paragraph is handed out. (HO 1) Whole class Feedback. T asks next question: Can you guess what the next paragraph will be?

While-Reading #2 (11-13 minutes) • To provide students with more challenging objective of applying what they have learned to a similar context

1. Students are divided into groups of three. This activity aims at applying what they have learned and moving them to more autonomous learners by giving them teacher-like roles through collaboration. 2. The instructions are given. T: You will have a passage, 1 minute to decide how you are going to help your readers predict. T: elicits how they are going to help the readers. Sts respond by saying words, titles, pictures. ICQs: Are you choosing words from the passage? Sts: Maybe. Are you writing a title? Yes. Are you drawing a picture? Yes? Are you good at drawing? (Causing laughter) Sts: Different responses. This activity will give them the chance to move to a deeper level of cognition to decide what words to choose for prediction. T gives the three paragraphs that will go with the words, titles and pictures drawn.

Post-Reading/Listening (10-12 minutes) • To provide with an opportunity to respond to the strategy development to move them to a higher level learning objective by applying predicting on a new passage

1. The students form groups of three. 2. They are asked to activate their strategy learning procedures to match the higher level objective: Bloom's Application and Analysis. Comprehension: What is predicting? Application: Is predicting helpful to improve your understanding of a reading passage? Analysis: How is predicting related to reading? For the feedback, some more challenging questions are posed to help them move to higher level objectives: Synthesis: Can we improve what we do while predicting? Evaluation: Do you like this technique? (Do you agree with what you do?)

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