Gamze Yılmaz Gamze Yılmaz

Modals of deduction
İntermediate level


In this lesson, students will learn about modals of deduction. First, they will listen to a conversation where two people make deductions about their friend's trip. Later, they will make deductions to practice.


Abc Coursebook,pictures
Abc Coursebook,pictures

Main Aims

  • Grammar: Modals of deduction

Subsidiary Aims

  • Vocabulary
  • Listening


Lead-in (3-5 minutes) • To set the context and to arouse sts' interest in the lesson.

- Ask Ss: Do you travel a lot? What kind of places do you like to see most? Why? (historical places, nature, big cities) - Group up the Ss. - Give each group a set of photos from the coursebook. - Tell them to guess:where do you think these photos were taken ? (1 min.) - Teacher elicits the answers, no comment at this stage.

Listening for specific information (5-6 minutes) • To practise listening for specific information.

- Pair up Ss - Tell Ss to listen and put the photos in the correct order as they hear and remember the countries. -Play the recording again, this time stop and ask about the country. - (C-Vietnam, B- Singapore, D- Thailand, A-Argentina) - Write the answer key on the board and ask them about the countries.

Pre-teaching vocabulary (4-6 minutes) • To practice vocabulary about the places to see.

- Show students the pictures and elicit - If they don't know the word for it, drill. - Write the pronunciation on the board. - Ask them to find the stress. - In 1 min, Ask Ss to match the places to the photos with their partner. - Give each group two or one picture to talk about what they see. Ss with their partners - Are there any places in Turkey where we can see these things? Tell your partner.

Eliciting TL through a text. (5-6 minutes) • To get Ss to discover the meaning and the form of TL

- Give Ss the script. - Ss in pairs. - Write on the board : I am sure(I think it is certain) I think it is possible. I think it is impossible. - Ask them to find these decutions or an example for each category. (2 min.) - Elicit the answers. - Write some of the answers on the board. - Ask them about the form. - Write the form on the board. - Make clear that we have to use infinitive form of the verb without to. - More Ex. She looks very tired. She ____ be ill. I call my friends house but nobody is answering. They ______. The sky is very cloudy tonight. Tomorrow_________. She is only 17. She ____ have a driving licence.

Establishing the meaning (3-4 minutes) • To make sure everybody understands the meaning of TL.

- Write some examples from the script on the board. Students will give you the examples. CCQs: It must be Singapore. Can it be India? Am I sure it is Singapore? It might be Vietnam. Am I sure it is Vietnam? Can it be Turkey? Do I know for sure? It can't be India. Is it India? Is there a possibility that it can be India? - Elicit the form of the sentence : It could be Vietnam. S. M. V1 Obj. Am I talking about past, present or future? - These are present modal verbs of deduction.

Practice - Matching Exercise (3-4 minutes) • To practice modals of deduction more.

Pair Work! -Give the Ss sets of strips (2min.) -Ask them to match the sentences. -Checking answers with their friends.

Writing - Productive (5-6 minutes) • To give Ss more practice by making them write deductions

- Ask Ss to look at page 71 and the table on it. - Ss work in gorups of three or even four. - They have to write deductions by looking at the information and decide which country it is.

Controlled Speaking-Feedback (5-6 minutes) • To give ss practice using TL

- Get Ss in a circle. - Give Ss some pictures and ask them to make deductions with their partner. - Demo it with an example.

Plan B (3-4 minutes) • To give Ss a chance to relax and speak freely.

-If there is extra time left: Ask Ss What places would they like to see before they die and why?

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