Muhammad Jamil Muhammad Jamil

Expressing Obligation and Lack of Obligation
Pre-Intermediate level


In this lesson students are going to learn and practice obligation and lack of obligation by using modals and other grammatical expressions. This lesson will lead the students into the lesson through a valid context understanding difference between must and have to and the way they express obligation. The consequent activities are designed to help internalize the structure with controlled and freer activities.


No materials added to this plan yet.

Main Aims

  • At the end of the lesson the students will be able to express obligation and lack of it.

Subsidiary Aims

  • Speaking and Vocabulary


Stage 1 / setting the context (Lead in) • To the set the context of obligations

At this stage I will show the students a video clip that is based on the idea of differentiating between the use of 'must' and 'have to'. Must is used to express personal obligation while have to is used for external or social obligation. I will play the whole video clip and ask the students to notice the situation when 'must' is used and when 'have to' is used. Then I will write question words and answer words on the board, play the video again and ask student to listen to the question and answer it by looking at the answer word (written on the board). This activity will make the concept of personal duty to the social obligations.

Presentation / Practice Stage • To present and practice language item (must/ have to) using the context

Before the start of this stage, I will ask the students if they the rules of any 'hotel'. Give them some time to brainstorm ideas. Ask them to say these rules and write them on the board. Them show them the handout and give clear instructions: Read the instructions of a 'Strict Hotel' compare the instructions you have thought about. And change each instruction in to sentences using 'must' and 'mustn't' They will be working in pairs. This activity will give them an opportunity to associate instruction (negative / positive) with the strong obligation or command. This is a close activity that is logical at the presentation stage. Then I will explain the form and meaning of ;must' Must is used to express personal obligation. It is a sort of command or what speaker thinks very important to do. 1.We use 'must' with simple verb. Ex. You must play tennis. (play) 2. The form of 'must' is same for all persons. Ex. I / we/ you / they / he / she / it = must play tennis. I must play tennis. He must play tennis / They must play tennis. 3. The negative of must is ' mustn't / must not Ex. You mustn't play tennis in this club. 4. Must can be used for future also. Ex. You must bring your sports shoes tomorrow. Then ask them to brainstorm rules in a classroom. Give them a minutes to think. Show them the handout and give clear instructions. They will work on their own. They will read the rules and complete the sentences using must and mustn't. This will give them an added practice.

Presentation / Practice Stage 2 • to present and practice Have to

At this stage, present them meaning and form of 'have to'. Ask them what are the names of different jobs they know about. Brainstorm the names. Write some of the name on the board Give them a handout explaining 'have to' Like previous stage, students are challenged to do the language and then form and meaning will be done inductively. Show them the handout, give clear instructions and let them work in pair. They will compare the jobs they thought of and the given in the handout. They will complete as a pair. They will choose ' have to ' and 'don't have to for each job.' This is also a controlled activity that will help them do understand the difference between t 'have to' and 'don't have to'. Then explain the meaning and form. Meaning: 1. Have to means that things are necessary because of rules and other people oblige us. 2. Things are necessary because of circumstances. Form: Have to I / we / you / they = have to / don't have to he / she / it /singular = has to / doesn't have to Questions: Do - I / we / you / they } have to do? Does - he / she / it } have to do?

Production Stage • to produce the langaueg by controlled and freer activities

At this stage, the students know the use of 'must' 'have to', and he use of their negative forms.

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